Chapter 12 Notes.docx - Did You Know Each year in the...

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Did You Know? Each year in the United States, 5-20% of the population gets the seasonal flu, resulting in 200,000 hospitalizations and, on average, 49,000 deaths. About 20 million people in the United States are infected each year with a sexually transmitted infection, and half of those cases occur in young people aged 15-24. Approximately 13% of the people in the United States infected with HIV do not realize it. Infectious Disease Terms Infection: the invasion of body tissues by microorganisms that use the body’s environment to multiply and cause disease. Pathogen: an agent that causes disease. Reservoir: the natural environment for any particular pathogen, where it accumulates in large numbers. Host: a person, plant, or animal in which or on which pathogens live and reproduce. Chain of Infection: a group of factors necessary for the spread of infection. Carrier: a person who is infected with a pathogen and does not show symptoms but who is infectious. Direct Transmission Contact with infected people Contact with infected animals Indirect Transmission Touching contaminated objects Breathing airborne pathogens Bites from infected insects o Vector: an animal or insect that transports pathogens from one point to another Drinking or eating contaminated water or food. Protecting Against Infections Protecting Against Infections Your skin! The body’s immune response: o The body’s cellular and chemical defenses against pathogens. o The inflammatory response in a response to damaged body tissues that is designed to kill any pathogens in the damaged tissues, promote healing, and prevent the spread of infection to other parts of the body. The Body Protects Against Infections Antigen: a tiny region on the surface of an infectious agent that can be detected by B cells and T cells.
Antibodies: proteins released by B cells that bind tightly to infectious agents and mark them for destruction. Acquired immunity: the body’s ability to quickly identify and attack a pathogen that it recognizes from previous exposure. Immunization Immunization: the creation of immunity to a pathogen through vaccination or through the injection of antibodies. Acquired immunity: the body’s ability to quickly identify and attack a pathogen that it recognizes from previous exposure. In some cases, acquired immunity leads to lifelong protection against the same infection. Herd immunity: the condition where greater than 90% of a community is vaccinated against a disease, giving it little ability to spread though the community. Immune Disorders: Allergies Allergies occur from abnormal immune system reactions to substances that are otherwise harmless. More than 50 million people in the United States have allergies. There are many strategies for coping with allergies. Anaphylactic shock occurs when the release of histamine and other chemicals into the body

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