N5315 Advanced PathophysiologyInflammation, Altered Immunity and Infection Core Concepts Objectives with Advanced Organizers Immune System1.Examine the structure and function of the immune system. a.Describe how the normal function of T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte cells differ.i.T Cells- Cell mediated immunity.1.“cluster of differentiation”2.CD4 cells- t-helper or t4 cellsa.Release lymphokines to begin inflammatory processb.Mediate delayed sensitivity. (TB skin test).3.CD8 cells aka t cells, killer t, and t8.a.Kill viruses by releasing cytotoxic chemicals4.Memory Ta.Remember the antigen and respond quicker and stronger after 1stexposure.5.T Regulatorya.Slow or stop immune response once initiated.ii.B cells- humoral immunity.1.Mature into plasma cells that produce antibodies.b.Differentiate between function of humoral and cell mediated immunity and describe the implications for practice. i.Humoral Immunity1.B cells.2.Fights viral infections, toxins, pneumococci, meningococci, and haemophilus.ii.Cell Mediated1.T cells.2.Fungal, parasitic, tumors.3.Responsible for organ transplant rejections.c.Describe the difference between active acquired immunity and passive acquired immunity and the implications for health promotion. i.Active Acquired Immunity- (vaccines)1.After exposure in antigen.2.Improves with repeat exposure.ii.Passive Acquired Immunity.1.Obtained after antibodies (bcells) are transferred to recipient.2.Ex- mother to fetus via placenta or breast milk.iii.Artificial Passive Immunity. (fake immunity)
1.Receiving antibodies AFTER exposure2.Rabies, tetanus, hepatitis, snake bites.3.Lasts as long as antibodies live, 2 weeks.d.Evaluate the purpose of the terms and describe the importance to clinical practice.AntigenoMolecule that can react with antibodies or antigen receptors on B and T cells.Self-antigen.oAppropriate in size, has adequate chemical complexity, and is presents in sufficient quantity, but isn’t foreign to body. oDoesn’t elicit immune response.Allergens.oProduce allergic response.2.Evaluate the role and function of the cells of the immune system. a.Evaluate the structure and function of the antibodies produced by the B-lymphocyte cells and describe the implications for clinical practice.Type of B-Lymphocyte CellsFunctionImplications for Clinical Practice IgA-CHOOThink sneezing.Secretions and mucous membranes.Prevents microorganism attachment to mucous membranes.IGA1-bloodIGA2-secretionsA secretory piece inside mucosal epithelial cells protects IGA against degradation from enzymesin secretions.IgM-MEGAThink largest.Early primary immune response.Presents as a pentamer and is stabilized by joining a chain.High levels= recent infection.
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