kin125exam2part4 - Chapter Thirteen Head and Spine Injuries...

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Chapter Thirteen: Head and Spine Injuries Head injuries can involve either injuries to the scalp or injury to the brain itself. Injury to the Scalp: it may be contused, lacerated, abraded, or avulsed. Injuries tend to bleed heavily because of the rich supply of blood vessels and the inelastic matrix of tissue that the vessels are in. To control bleeding of a scalp injury, apply gentle direct pressure with a dry sterile dressing. Do not apply pressure directly over the area if you suspect a skull fracture. Apply pressure over a broad area or around the edges of the wound. Injury to the Brain: Most are caused by trauma, from a vehicle accident or a fall. Nontraumatic brain injury may also be secondary- the brain can be injured as a result of inadequate blood flow and inadequate delivery of oxygen to the brain cells. Coup-contrecoup: a mechanism of brain injury in which the head comes to a sudden stop buy the brain continues to move back and forth inside the skull. Two sites of injury: the point of impact and the point on the opposite side where the brain hits the skull. Signs and Symptoms -Decreasing mental status or altered responsiveness -Combativeness and erratic behavior -Nausea/vomiting -Pupils are not equal or reactive to light -Double vision or other visual disturbances -Headache, sometimes severe -Loss of memory, confusion, or disorientation -Weakness or loss of balance -Seizures -Evidence of trauma to the head -Slow heart rate -Irregular breathing pattern First Aid Care: any victim with suspected brain injury, needs immediate medical attention -Suspect spine injury in any victim with suspected brain injury; stabilize the head and neck -Establish and monitor the victims ABCDs; ensure the airway is open, provide rescue breathing -Anticipate vomiting: keep the head and neck stabilized when rolling the victim into anatomical position. -Treat the victim for shock. Injury to the Skull (Skull Fracture): fractured only if the force to the head is extreme Four Types of Skull Fracture:
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Depressed: An object strikes the skull, leaving an obvious depression or deformity. Linear: The most common, a linear fracture causes a thin line crack in the skull. They are the least serious, and most difficult to detect. Comminuted: Appears at the point of impact, with multiple cracks radiating from the center.
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kin125exam2part4 - Chapter Thirteen Head and Spine Injuries...

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