2016.GI System I & II Blackboard.ppt

2016.GI System I & II Blackboard.ppt - Digestive System...

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Unformatted text preview: Digestive System I. General Description and Considerations A. Paradox of similarity and change 1. 2. 3. 4. All organs of the GI tract are modifications of a simple tube Epithelium of the entire tract is derived from a single embryonic germ cell layer All organs have some function related to digestion All areas of the tract have basically the same histological layers A. Paradox of similarity and change However, 5. Abrupt changes occur in the epithelium from one organ to the next 6. Drastic modifications of the mucosa occur from one organ to the next 7. Each organ along the tract performs a separate and unique function related to digestion B. General description 1.Mucosa a.Epithelium b.Lamina propria c.Muscularis mucosa 2.Submucosa 3.Muscularis externa 4.Adventitia General Plan of the GI Tract Digestive System II. Esophagus A. General description and functions 1. 2. 3. Length, location, & relationships Innervation Functions II. Esophagus A. B. C. D. E. General Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Adventitia B. Mucosa 1. 2. 3. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Lamina propria Muscularis mucosa C. Submucosa 1. Contributes to large longitudinal folds of esophagus - these smooth out during swallowing C. Submucosa 2. Contains esophageal glands - compound tubuloalveolar, mucus secreting D. Muscularis externa 1. 2. 3. 4. Upper one-third Middle onethird Lower one-third Innervation E. Adventitia 1. 2. Intrathoracic portion blends with surrounding dense irregular CT Below diaphragm covered with visceral peritoneum Gastro-Esophageal Junction Gastro-Esophageal Junction Gastro-Esophageal Junction Esophageal Ulcer Digestive System III. Stomach A. General description & functions 1. 2. 3. Role in digestion and storage 4 gross anatomic vs. 3 histological divisions Rugae Stomach Regions & Glands B. Mucosa 1. Surface a. b. c. esophageal-gastric junction - abrupt change from stratified squamous to simple columnar gastric pits - fine furrows, lead into glands simple columnar epithelium - forms sheet gland, all mucus secreting, mucus has a basic pH Gastric Lining Cells & Pits B. Mucosa 2. Gastric gland structure & nomenclature a. b. simple, branched tubular glands occupy entire thickness of mucosa each gland has a neck, body, and base B. Mucosa 2. Gastric gland structure & nomenclature a. b. simple, branched tubular glands occupy entire thickness of mucosa each gland has a neck, body, and base B. Mucosa 3. Lamina propria a. b. occupies space between glands and pits richly vascularized and slips of smooth muscle from muscularis mucosa B. Mucosa 4. Cardiac glands a. b. c. d. in cardiac region of stomach, near esophageal orifice length of gland approximately equal to depth of pit mostly mucus secreting cells with a few parietal and enteroendocrine cells primary function is to produce a protective mucus secretion B. Mucosa 4. Cardiac glands B. Mucosa 5. Fundic glands a. b. c. d. e. located in fundic and body regions of stomach one or more open into each gastric pit, glands are much longer than their pits are deep classified as simple branched tubular closely packed, perpendicular to surface major source of gastric juice B. Mucosa 5. Fundic glands B. Mucosa 6. Fundic gland cells a. b. c. d. Mucus Neck Parietal Chief Enteroendocrine Fundic Glands – Neck & Body Parietal Cell Fundic Glands - Base Enteroendocrine Cells Enteroendocrine Cell B. Mucosa 7. Pyloric glands Meissner’s Plexus Muscularis Externa Auerbach’s Plexus Gastric Ulcer Gastroduodenal Junction Gastroduodenal Junction Digestive System IV. Small Intestines A. General features and functions 1. 2. 3. Length & Subdivisions Functions Surface Area A. General features and functions 3. Structural specializations a. b. c. plica circulares intestinal villi microvilli B. Mucosa 1. 2. 3. Intestinal villi Intestinal glands Lamina propria Duodenum - Brunner’s Glands Intestinal Villi Blood Circulation & Lymphatics Peyer’s Patch C. Cell types of the small intestine 1. 2. 3. 4. Intestinal epithelial cells Goblet cells Enteroendocrine cells Paneth cells Lipid Absorption Blood Circulation & Lymphatics Lacteals Lacteal Goblet Cells Paneth Cell Paneth Cells Intestinal Gland D. Submucosa 1. Plicae circulares D. Submucosa 2. Duodenal glands (of Brunner) Digestive System V. Large Intestine A. General features and functions 1. 2. 3. Anatomic divisions Histology Functions B. Mucosa 1. 2. 3. Epithelium Intestinal glands Lamina propria Large Intestine Glands C. Accessory coats 1. 2. 3. Taeniae coli Rectum Serosa Large Intestine Large Intestine Ulcerative Colitis D. Appendix 1. Mucosa a. b. 2. intestinal glands lymphoid nodules Accessory coats a. b. submucosa no taeniae coli Appendix E. Rectum, anal canal, and anus 1. Rectum a. b. c. tubular glands anal columns pectinate line E. Rectum, anal canal, and anus 2. Junction of the rectum and anal canal a. b. c. d. epithelium muscularis mucosa hemorrhoidal vessels muscularis externa Recto-Anal Junction E. Rectum, anal canal, and anus 3. Anus a. b. c. epithelium connective tissue external anal sphincter Anus ...
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