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Biology 205-03:Human Anatomy and Physiology IFall 2017Lecture outline 2:Chemical level of organizationReading in Martini:Chapter 2Note:I consider the chemical level of organization one of the most challenging portions of the course.Thechallenge does not arise because the material (at our level of emphasis) is difficult, but because students takingBiology 205 have diverse backgrounds when it comes to previous exposure to what I will call “chemistry.”Typically some members of the class have never taken a formal chemistry course, while others have takenseveral college-level chemistry courses.The challenge I face is deciding what to cover in class.This is not achemistry course, but throughout Biology 205 and Biology 206 you will encounter some basic chemistryconcepts, and you will also deal with the chemical make-up of living systems.My intention is that you assume individual responsibility for the material in sections A and B of the outlinebelow.The outline indicates what I think you should be familiar with.The textbook presents all of theseconcepts (not necessarily in exactly the same order) in pages 43-67.While that might seem like quite a fewpages, this section of the textbook is extensively illustrated, and the concepts are introduced through manyillustrations.While I plan to make some in-class comments on topics included in sections A and B below, for the most partthe classroom focus of our consideration of the chemical level of organization will be confined to material insections C and D of the outline.To fully comprehend the topics in sections C and D you will need a goodunderstanding of the topics in sections A and B.Refer to the outline and use your textbook (pages 43-67).Ifyou encounter difficulty in working through this material, come to class with questions.A.Organization of matter:anything (living or nonliving) that has mass and occupies space1.Elements make up all mattera.Standard symbols for elements…including some to rememberb.The elemental composition of living organisms is very different from that of Earthc.Elements contributing to the human body (or any organism) vary in abundance:major elements,lesser elements, trace elements2.Elements are composed of atoms…below is a simplified generic description that can be applied toatomsa.Nucleus at the “core” of the atom1.Protonsa.The nucleus of every atom has at least one proton…atoms of different elements vary intheir proton numberb.Protons are massive, and each has a charge of +12.Neutronsa.The nucleus of most (but not all) atoms include neutrons…atoms of different elements(and even atoms of the same element) vary in their neutron numberb.Neutrons are massive, and each is neutral (no charge)b.Electrons1.Found in a cloud outside the nucleus2.A simple (if not technically correct) depiction:electrons orbit the nucleus in shells thatcorrespond to energy levels3.Electrons are not massive, and each has a charge of −1c.Neutral atom:the number of protons = the number of electrons (so the atom has no net charge)1

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Term
Fall
Professor
Carlson

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