Soil%20Stabilization%20QEDQ1229.pdf

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Introduction to Soil Stabilization R Understanding the Basics of Soil Stabilization: An Overview of Materials and Techniques
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Introduction to Soil Stabilization ................................................................................ 3 Brief History .................................................................................................................. 3 Document Purpose ...................................................................................................... 3 Defining Soil Stabilization ............................................................................................ 4 What is Soil Stabilization? ............................................................................................ 4 Why and when is it used? ............................................................................................ 5 Applications .................................................................................................................. 6 About Soil ...................................................................................................................... 7 What kind of soil is that, anyway? ................................................................................ 7 Standards help identify soil types ................................................................................ 7 USDA ........................................................................................................................ 8 USCS ........................................................................................................................ 8 AASHTO .................................................................................................................... 9 Chemical Soil Stabilization .......................................................................................... 10 Additives ...................................................................................................................... 11 Portland Cement ...................................................................................................... 11 Quicklime/Hydrated Lime .......................................................................................... 12 Fly Ash ...................................................................................................................... 12 Calcium Chloride ...................................................................................................... 12 Bitumen .................................................................................................................... 12 Chemical and Bio Remediation ................................................................................ 13 Mechanical Soil Stabilization ...................................................................................... 14 Compaction .............................................................................................................. 14 Soil Reinforcement .................................................................................................... 14 Addition of Graded Aggregate Materials .................................................................. 15 Mechanical Remediation .......................................................................................... 15 The Basic Soil Stabilization Process .......................................................................... 16 Assessment and Testing .......................................................................................... 16 Site Preparation ........................................................................................................ 16 Introduce Additives .................................................................................................... 17 Mixing ........................................................................................................................ 17 Compaction and Shaping/Trimming .......................................................................... 17 Curing ........................................................................................................................ 17 Glossary ........................................................................................................................ 18-21 Appendix ........................................................................................................................ 22 Acknowledgements/References .................................................................................. 23 2 Table of Contents
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Introduction to Soil Stabilization A land-based structure of any type is only as strong as its foundation. For that reason, soil is a critical element influencing the success of a construction project. Soil is either part of the foundation or one of the raw materials used in the construction process. Therefore, understanding the engineering properties of soil is crucial to obtain strength and economic permanence. Soil stabilization is the process of maximizing the suitability of soil for a given construction purpose. Brief History The necessity of improving the engineering properties of soil has been recognized for as long as construction has existed. Many ancient cultures, including the Chinese, Romans, and Incas, utilized various techniques to improve soil stability, some of which were so effective that many of the buildings and roadways they constructed still exist today. Some are still in use. In the United States, the modern era of soil stabilization began during the 1960s and ’70s, when general shortages of aggregates and petroleum resources forced engineers to consider alternatives to the conventional technique of replacing poor soils at building sites with shipped-in aggregates that possessed more favorable engineering characteristics. Soil stabilization then fell out of favor, mainly due to faulty application techniques and misunderstanding. More recently, soil stabilization has once again become a popular trend as global demand for raw materials, fuel, and infrastructure has increased. This time, however, soil stabilization is benefiting from better research, materials and equipment. Document Purpose The purpose of this manual is to provide a general overview of soil stabilization practices used in the construction and maintenance of structures designed for supporting motor vehicle use. It is not meant as a guidebook or to provide application advice. Only a qualified geo- technical engineer can make recommendations on the techniques and materials required for suitable sub-base design.
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