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Unformatted text preview: HNF 150 Exam 1 Study Guide A. Nutrition Basics a. Energy Yields i. Carbohydrate = 4 cal/g ii. Protein = 4 cal/g iii. Fat = 9 cal/g iv. Alcohol = 7 cal/g b. H ow many calories are in 5 grams of protein? i. 5 g protein x 4 cal/g = 20 calories c. 6 classes of nutrients i. Water ii. Carbohydrates – energy-yielding iii. Fats – energy-yielding iv. Proteins – energy-yielding, structure (tissues) v. Vitamins – regulator (assists in body processes like digestion, movement, waste disposal, tissue growth) vi. Minerals – regulator, structure (calcium) d. Essential Nutrients- The body cannot produce these nutrients for itself, without them the body will develop deficiencies. They are found in all of the 6 classes of nutrients. e. Nutrient Density- Foods lower in calories and higher in nutrients, rich in nutrients relative to their energy content (calories), usually whole grain foods. f. Energy-Yielding Nutrients- the nutrients the body can use for energy. They may also supply building blocks for body structures. g. Organic/Inorganic i. Organic- carbon containing. Four of the 6 classes are organic: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins. ii. Inorganic- lack carbon. h. Glossary of Food Types i. Basic Foods- milk and milk products; meats and foods such as fish and poultry; vegetables, including dried beans and peas; fruits; and grains. These foods are generally considered to form the basis of nutritious diets, a.k.a. whole foods. ii. Enriched Foods and Fortified Foods- foods to which nutrients have been added. If the starting material is a whole food such as milk or whole grain, the result may be highly nutritious. If the starting material is a concentrated form of sugar or fat, the result may be less nutritious. iii. Fast Foods- restaurant foods that are available within minutes after customers order them—traditionally, hamburgers, French fries, and milkshakes, more recently, salads and other vegetable side dishes. These foods may or may not meet nutrient needs, depending on the selections made and on the energy allowances and nutrient needs. iv. Functional Foods- a term that reflects an attempt to define as a group the foods known to possess nutrients or nonnutrients that might lend protection against diseases. v. Medical Foods- foods specially manufactured for use by people with medical disorders and prescribed by a physician....
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course HNF 150 taught by Professor Thurston during the Spring '07 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '07