Health Exam 2 Study Guide

Health Exam 2 Study Guide - Health Exam 2 Study Guide A...

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Health Exam 2 Study Guide A.Cardiovascular Disease a. Hypertension –  high blood pressure i. Constricted blood vessels ii. Hypertension makes this worse, turbulence of blood flow creates  injuries on vessel walls b. Smoking increases CVD i. Increase LDL ii. Decrease HDL iii. Increase blood clotting iv. Increase vascular injuries c. Functions of Cholesterol i. Used by glands to synthesize hormones (sex hormones) ii. Liver uses cholesterol to produce bile iii. Main component of cell membranes and structures iv. Most of the cholesterol is made by the body B. Things to Lower Risks of CVD a.Lipid oxidation i. Antioxidants decrease lipid oxidation ii. Promising research on antioxidants such as vitamin E and C iii. Fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, vegetable oils b.Physical Activity i. Lowers LDL ii. Raises HDL iii. Strengthen heart muscle and improves circulation iv. Lowers blood pressure v. Improves blood sugar regulation c.Healthy Weight i. May lower LDL and lower HDL ii. Lower blood pressure iii. Metabolic Syndrome: 1. Central obesity 2. Diabetes, altered insulin response
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3. High LDL/HDL 4. Hypertension d.What Else? i. Sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) 1. Increase blood LDL 2. Increase triglycerides ii. Soluble fiber 1. Lowers blood cholesterol 2. Improves LDL/HDL ratio iii. Alcohol 1. 1-2 drinks raises HDL and prevents clot formation in elderly 2. Drinking increases hypertension and damages heart muscle 3. Binge drinking increases abdominal fat C.Proteins and Amino Acids a.Protein Facts i. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ii. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein iii. Some amino acids are essential b.Amino Acids i. Backbone 1. Amine group (contains nitrogen) 2. Acid group ii. Side Chain - vary in size, shape and electrical charge iii. Peptide Bonds 1. Bond amino acids together 2. Between the amine group and the acid group 3. Dipeptide has 2 amino acids 4. Tripeptide has 3 amino acids 5. More than 3 amino acids are just called proteins 6. What makes proteins different from one another?  a. Sequence of AA and the shape iv. Shape of proteins 1. Each protein has a sequence of amino acids 2. Sequence determines shape
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3. Shape determines function 4. Can have up to 300 different amino acids 5. Protein strands are coiled or folded v. Hemoglobin - globular, coiled red structures in red blood cells that  help transport oxygen vi. Normal red blood cells and sickle cells- one amino acid difference  between normal and sickle blood cells vii. Three types : Essential, Non-essential, and conditionally essential  (needs to be eaten if phenoalanine is not eaten) c.Protein Synthesis i. Protein has nucleus containing genetic material ii. Proteins are made by ribosomes
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Health Exam 2 Study Guide - Health Exam 2 Study Guide A...

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