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HNF 150 - HNF 150 Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health...

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HNF 150 13/01/2008 20:09:00 Chapter 1: Food Choices and Human Health A Lifetime of Nourishment The body renews its structures continuously, and each day it builds a little  muscle, bone, skin, and blood, replacing old tissues with new. It may also add  a little fat if you consume excess food energy (calories), or subtract a little if  you consume less than you require. The best food is the kind that supports the growth and maintenance of strong  muscles, sound bones, healthy skin, and sufficient blood to cleanse and  nourish all parts of your body. It needs food that provides not only energy but  also sufficient nutrients such as  water carbohydrates fats proteins vitamins , and  minerals . A well-chosen array of foods supplies enough energy and enough of each  nutrient to prevent  malnutrition . Malnutrition includes deficiencies,  imbalances, and excesses of nutrients. The Diet and Health Connection o Diet choice affects health, both today and in the future. Only 2 common  lifestyle habits are more influential: smoking and other tobacco use,  and excessive drinking of alcohol. Of the leading causes of death, 4  are directly linked to nutrition, and another—car accidents—are related  to drinking alcohol. The  chronic diseases —heart disease, diabetes,  some kinds of cancer, dental disease, and adult bone loss—all have a  connection to poor diet, but also to genetics, activities, and lifestyle. Genetics and Individuality
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o Genetics and nutrition affect different diseases to varying degrees. For  example, the anemia caused by sickle-cell disease is purely hereditary.  On the other hand, iron-deficiency anemia most often results from  undernutrition. The recent identification of the human  genome  establishes the entire sequence of the  genes  in human  DNA , and has  revealed the body’s instructions for making all of the working parts of a  human being. o o The Importance of Nutritional Genomics o The integration of nutrition, genomic science, and molecular biology  has launched a new area of study,  nutrition genomics . Scientists  working in this area are describing how nutrients affect the activities of  nutrients.
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