worlds+together%2Cworlds+apart.pdf - W W Norton Company Inc www.NortonEbooks.com WORLDS TOGETHER WO R L D S A PA R T THIRD EDITION Robert Tignor Jeremy

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Unformatted text preview: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. WORLDS TOGETHER WO R L D S A PA R T THIRD EDITION Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Xinru Liu, Suzanne Marchand, Holly Pittman, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw, and Michael Tsin third edition Worlds Together, W O R L D S A PA R T Ro b e rt Ti g n o r Jeremy Adelman Stephen Aron Peter Brown Benjamin Elman Stephen Kotkin Xinru Liu Suzanne Marchand H o l ly P i t t m a n Gya n P r a k a s h B r e n t S h aw M i c h a e l Ts i n third edition Worlds Together, Wo r l d s A p a r t A H i s t o ry o f t h e Wo r l d f ro m t h e B e g i n n i n g s o f H u m a n k i n d t o t h e P r e s e n t B W • W • N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y N E W YO R K • L O N D O N W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Editor: Jon Durbin Developmental Editor: Alice Vigliani Copy Editor: Ellen Lohman Project Editor: Rebecca Homiski Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Production Manager: Benjamin Reynolds Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Marketing Manager: Tamara McNeill Emedia Editor: Steve Hoge Design Director: Rubina Yeh Ancillary Editor: Lorraine Klimowich Editorial Assistant: Jason Spears Layout Artist: Brad Walrod Composition: TexTech, Inc. Cartographer: Carto-Graphics/Alice Thiede Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2002 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Worlds together, worlds apart : a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present / Robert Tignor … [et al.]. — 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-393-93492-2 (hardcover) 1. World history. I. Tignor, Robert L. D21.W94 2011 909—dc22 2010036837 ISBN 978-0-393-11968-8 (pdf ebook) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Contents in Brief C h a pt e r 1 C h a pt e r 2 C h a pt e r 3 C h a pt e r 4 C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r C h a pt e r 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Becoming Human 3 R i v e r s, C i t i e s, a n d F i r s t S tat e s, 4 0 0 0 – 2 0 0 0 b c e 4 3 No m a d s, Te r r i to r i a l S tat e s, a n d M i c ro s o c i e t i e s, 2000–1200 bce 85 F i r s t E m p i r e s a n d C o m m o n C u lt u r e s i n A f ro - E u r a s i a , 1250–325 bce 125 Wo r l d s Tu r n e d I n s i d e O ut, 1 0 0 0 – 3 5 0 b c e 1 6 1 H a n D y na s ty C h i na a n d I m pe r i a l Ro m e, 3 0 0 b c e – 3 0 0 c e 2 0 5 S h r i n k i n g t h e A f ro - E u r a s i a n Wo r l d, 3 5 0 b c e – 2 5 0 c e 2 4 1 Th e R i s e o f U n i v e r s a l R e l i g i o n s, 3 0 0 – 6 0 0 c e 2 8 1 N e w E m p i r e s a n d C o m m o n C u lt u r e s, 6 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 c e 3 2 1 B e c o m i n g “ Th e Wo r l d, ” 1 0 0 0 – 1 3 0 0 c e 3 6 3 C r i s e s a n d R e c ov e ry i n A f ro - E u r a s i a , 1 3 0 0 s – 1 5 0 0 s 4 1 1 C o n tac t, C o m m e rc e, a n d C o lo n i zat i o n, 1 4 5 0 s – 1 6 0 0 4 4 7 Wo r l d s E n ta n g l e d, 1 6 0 0 – 1 7 5 0 4 8 3 C u lt u r e s o f S p l e n d o r a n d Pow e r , 1 5 0 0 – 1 7 8 0 5 2 5 R e o r d e r i n g t h e Wo r l d, 1 7 5 0 – 1 8 5 0 5 6 1 A lt e r nat i v e Vi s i o n s o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u ry 5 9 9 Nat i o n s a n d E m p i r e s, 1 8 5 0 – 1 9 1 4 6 3 1 A n U n s e t t l e d Wo r l d, 1 8 9 0 – 1 9 1 4 6 6 9 O f M a s s e s a n d Vi s i o n s o f t h e Mo d e r n, 1 9 1 0 – 1 9 3 9 7 0 7 Th e Th r e e - Wo r l d O r d e r , 1 9 4 0 – 1 9 7 5 7 4 5 G lo b a l i zat i o n, 1 9 7 0 – 2 0 0 0 7 8 5 E p i lo g u e, 2 0 0 1 – Th e P r e s e n t 8 2 3 v Contents Preface The New Edition xxxii Our Guiding Principles xxxiii Our Major Themes xxxiv Overview of Volume One xxxv Overview of Volume Two xxxvii Innovative Pedagogical Program, Made Better xxxix Resources for Instructors xl Resources for Students xl Acknowledgments xli About the Authors xlv The Geography of the Ancient and Modern Worlds xlviii z C h a pt e r 1 Becoming Human P r e c u r s o r s to Mo d e r n H u m a n s 4 Creation Myths and Beliefs 5 Evolutionary Findings and Research Methods 6 Early Hominids and Adaptation 8 The First Humans: Homo Habilis 11 Early Humans on the Move: Migrations of Homo Erectus Th e F i r s t Mo d e r n H u m a n s 3 13 15 Homo Sapiens and Their Migration 15 Cro-Magnon Homo Sapiens Replace Neanderthals 18 Early Homo Sapiens as Hunters and Gatherers 19 vii viii Contents A rt a n d L a n g uag e Art 21 Language 21 22 Th e B e g i n n i n g s o f Fo o d P ro du c t i o n Early Domestication of Plants and Animals Pastoralists and Agriculturalists 25 24 24 E m e rg e n c e o f Ag r i c u lt u r e i n O t h e r A r e a s 25 Southwest Asia: The Agricultural Revolution Begins 28 East Asia: Rice and Water 28 Europe: Borrowing along Two Pathways 30 The Americas: A Slower Transition to Agriculture 32 Africa: The Race with the Sahara 35 R e vo lut i o n s i n S o c i a l O rga n i zat i o n Settlement in Villages 36 Men, Women, and Evolving Gender Relations C o n c lu s i o n 39 Key Te r m s 41 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 36 39 41 C h a pt e r 2 R i v e r s, C i t i e s, a n d F i r s t S tat e s, 4 0 0 0 – 2 0 0 0 b c e 4 3 S e t t l e m e n t, Pa s to r a l i s m , a n d Tr a d e Early Cities along River Basins 45 Smaller Settlements around 3500 BCE Pastoral Nomadic Communities 48 The Rise of Trade 48 44 45 B e tw e e n t h e Ti g r i s a n d E u p h r at e s R i v e r s : M e s o pota m i a 4 9 Tapping the Waters 50 Crossroads of Southwest Asia 51 The World’s First Cities 51 Gods and Temples 52 The Palace and Royal Power 53 Social Hierarchy and Families 54 First Writing and Early Texts 54 Spreading Cities and First Territorial States 57 Th e I n du s R i v e r Va l l ey: A Pa r a l l e l C u lt u r e Harappan City Life Trade 61 59 58 Contents “ Th e G i f t o f t h e N i l e ” : E g y pt 62 The Nile River and Its Floodwaters 62 Egypt’s Unique Riverine Culture 63 The Rise of the Egyptian State and Dynasties Rituals, Pyramids, and Cosmic Order 64 Religion 66 Writing and Scribes 68 The Prosperity of Egypt 69 Later Dynasties and Their Demise 69 64 Th e Ye l low a n d Ya n g z i R i v e r Ba s i n s : East Asia 71 From Yangshao to Longshan Culture Liangzhu Culture 75 71 L i f e o n t h e M a rg i n s o f A f ro - E u r a s i a Aegean Worlds 75 Anatolia 77 Europe: The Western Frontier C o n c lu s i o n 82 Key Te r m s 83 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 75 77 83 C h a pt e r 3 No m a d s, Te r r i to r i a l S tat e s, a n d M i c ro s o c i e t i e s, 2 0 0 0 – 1 2 0 0 b c e 8 5 No m a d i c Mov e m e n t a n d t h e E m e rg e n c e o f Te r r i to r i a l S tat e s 8 6 Nomadic and Transhumant Migrations 87 The Emergence of Territorial States 90 Th e R i s e o f Te r r i to r i a l S tat e s i n E g y pt a n d S out h w e s t A s i a 9 1 Egypt 93 Anatolia and the Rise of the Hittites 96 Mesopotamia 96 The Community of Major Powers (1400–1200 BCE) No m a d s a n d t h e I n du s R i v e r Va l l ey 101 R i s e o f t h e S h a n g S tat e ( 1 6 0 0 – 1 0 4 5 b c e ) State Formation 106 Metalworking, Agriculture, and Tribute 108 Shang Society and Beliefs 110 The Development of Writing in China 110 100 106 ix x Contents Th e S out h Pac i f i c ( 2 5 0 0 b c e – 4 0 0 c e ) 111 Seafaring Skills 112 Environment and Culture 112 Microsocieties in the Aegean World 113 Seaborne Trade and Communication 114 Minoan Culture 116 Mycenaean Culture 116 E u ro pe — Th e No rt h e r n Fro n t i e r E a r ly S tat e s i n t h e A m e r i c a s C o n c lu s i o n 121 Key Te r m s 122 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 117 119 122 C h a pt e r 4 F i r s t E m p i r e s a n d C o m m o n C u lt u r e s i n A f ro - E u r a s i a , 1250–325 bce 125 Fo rc e s o f U p h e ava l a n d t h e R i s e o f E a r ly E m p i r e s Pack Camels 127 New Ships 127 Iron 127 Th e N e o - A s s y r i a n E m p i r e 130 Expansion into an Empire 131 Integration and Control of the Empire 132 Assyrian Social Structure and Population 133 The Instability of the Assyrian Empire 135 Th e P e r s i a n E m p i r e 135 The Integration of a Multicultural Empire 136 Zoroastrianism, Ideology, and Social Structure 137 Public Works and Imperial Identity 139 I m pe r i a l Fr i n g e s i n We s t e r n A f ro - E u r a s i a Migrations and Upheaval 141 Persia and the Greeks 142 The Phoenicians 144 The Israelites and Judah 144 Fou n dat i o n s o f Ve d i c C u lt u r e i n S out h A s i a (1500–400 bce) 147 Social and Religious Culture Material Culture 147 Splintered States 148 147 141 126 Contents Castes in a Stratified Society Vedic Worlds 150 148 Th e E a r ly Z h ou E m p i r e i n E a s t A s i a ( 1 0 4 5 – 7 7 1 b c e ) Integration Through Dynastic Institutions 152 Zhou Succession and Political Foundations 154 The Zhou “Mandate of Heaven” and the Justification of Power Social and Economic Transformation 156 Occupational Groups and Family Structures 156 Limits and Decline of Zhou Power 157 C o n c lu s i o n 158 Key Te r m s 159 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 152 154 159 C h a pt e r 5 Wo r l d s Tu r n e d I n s i d e O ut, 1000–350 bce 161 A lt e r nat i v e Pat h ways a n d I d e a s E a s t e r n Z h ou C h i na 162 166 The Spring and Autumn Period 166 The Warring States Period 166 New Ideas and the “Hundred Masters” 168 Scholars and the State 169 Innovations in State Administration 169 Innovations in Warfare 171 Economic, Social, and Cultural Changes 172 Th e N e w Wo r l d s o f S out h A s i a 173 The Rise of New Polities 174 Expansion of the Caste System 175 New Cities and an Expanding Economy 176 Brahmans, Their Challengers, and New Beliefs C o m m o n C u lt u r e s i n t h e A m e r i c a s 177 182 The Chavín in the Andes 182 The Olmecs in Mesoamerica 183 C o m m o n C u lt u r e s i n S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a The Four Zones 188 Nubia: Between Sudanic Africa and Pharaonic Egypt West African Kingdoms 190 187 189 Wa r r i n g I d e a s i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n Wo r l d New Thinking and New Societies at the Margins A New World of City-States 193 192 190 xi xii Contents Economic Innovations and Population Movement New Ideas 196 C o n c lu s i o n 199 Key Te r m s 200 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 194 201 C h a pt e r 6 S h r i n k i n g t h e A f ro - E u r a s i a n Wo r l d, 3 5 0 b c e – 2 5 0 c e 2 0 3 Po l i t i c a l E x pa n s i o n a n d C u lt u r a l D i f f u s i o n Th e E m e rg e n c e o f a C o s m o po l i ta n Wo r l d 204 208 Conquests of Alexander the Great 208 Alexander’s Successors and the Territorial Kingdoms 209 Hellenistic Culture 210 Jewish Resistance to Hellenism 214 The Hellenistic World and the Beginnings of the Roman Empire 214 Carthage 214 Economic Changes: Plantation Slavery and Money-Based Economies 215 C o n v e rg i n g I n f lu e n c e s i n C e n t r a l a n d S out h A s i a Influences from the Mauryan Empire 217 The Seleucid Empire and Greek Influences 220 The Kingdom of Bactria and the Yavana Kings 220 Nomadic Influences of Parthians and Kushans 223 Th e Tr a n s f o r m at i o n o f B u d d h i s m 224 India as a Spiritual Crossroads 224 The New Buddhism: The Mahayana School Cultural Integration 227 225 Th e Fo r m at i o n o f t h e S i l k Roa d 228 A New Middle Ground 229 Nomads, Frontiers, and Trade Routes 229 Early Overland Trade and Caravan Cities 229 The Western End of the Silk Road: Palmyra 232 Reaching China along the Silk Road 234 The Spread of Buddhism along the Trade Routes 235 C o m m e rc e o n t h e R e d S e a a n d I n d i a n O c e a n C o n c lu s i o n 236 Key Te r m s 239 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s 239 236 216 Contents z C h a pt e r 7 H a n D y na s ty C h i na a n d I m pe r i a l Ro m e, 3 0 0 b c e – 3 0 0 c e 2 4 1 C h i na a n d Ro m e : H ow E m p i r e s A r e B u i lt 242 Empire and Cultural Identity 243 Patterns of Imperial Expansion 243 Th e Q i n D y na s ty 244 Administration and Control 244 Economic and Social Changes 246 Nomads and the Qin along the Northern Frontier The Qin Debacle 248 Th e H a n D y na s ty 247 250 Foundations of Han Power 250 The New Social Order and the Economy 253 Expansion of the Empire and the Silk Road 257 Social Convulsions and the Usurper 258 Natural Disaster and Rebellion 259 The Later Han Dynasty 259 Th e Ro m a n E m p i r e 261 Foundations of the Roman Empire 261 Emperors, Authoritarian Rule, and Administration Town and City Life 267 Social and Gender Relations 270 Economy and New Scales of Production 272 Religious Cults and the Rise of Christianity 274 The Limits of Empire 275 C o n c lu s i o n 277 Key Te r m s 278 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 266 279 C h a pt e r 8 Th e R i s e o f U n i v e r s a l R e l i g i o n s, 3 0 0 – 6 0 0 c e 2 8 1 U n i v e r s a l R e l i g i o n s a n d C o m m o n C u lt u r e s E m p i r e s a n d R e l i g i ou s C h a n g e i n We s t e r n A f ro - E u r a s i a 2 8 6 The Rise and Spread of Christianity The Christian Empire 291 286 282 xiii xiv Contents The Fall of Rome: A Takeover from the Margins 291 Byzantium, Rome in the East: The Rise of Constantinople Sasanian Persia 296 Th e S i l k Roa d 294 299 The Sogdians as Lords of the Silk Road Buddhism on the Silk Road 302 299 Po l i t i c a l a n d R e l i g i ou s C h a n g e i n S out h A s i a The Transformation of the Buddha 303 The Hindu Transformation 304 A Code of Conduct Instead of an Empire 305 Po l i t i c a l a n d R e l i g i ou s C h a n g e i n E a s t A s i a Northern and Southern China Buddhism in China 307 C o n c lu s i o n 317 Key Te r m s 318 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 306 306 Fa i t h a n d C u lt u r e s i n t h e Wo r l d s A pa rt Bantus of Sub-Saharan Africa Mesoamericans 312 303 310 310 319 C h a pt e r 9 N e w E m p i r e s a n d C o m m o n C u lt u r e s, 6 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 c e 3 2 1 Religions and Empires 322 Th e O r i g i n s a n d S p r e a d o f I s la m 323 A Vision, a Text 324 The Move to Medina 324 Conquests 325 An Empire of Arabs 326 The Abbasid Revolution 327 The Blossoming of Abbasid Culture 330 Islam in a Wider World 332 Opposition within Islam, Shiism, and the Rise of the Fatimids Agriculture in the Muslim World 338 Th e Ta n g S tat e 340 Agriculture in China 340 Territorial Expansion under the Tang Dynasty The Army and Imperial Campaigning 340 Organizing an Empire 343 An Economic Revolution 345 340 337 Contents Accommodating World Religions The Fall of Tang China 348 E a r ly Ko r e a a n d Ja pa n 346 348 Early Korea 348 Early Japan 349 The Yamato Emperor and the Shinto Origins of the Japanese Sacred Identity 350 Th e C h r i s t i a n We s t 352 Charlemagne’s Fledgling Empire 352 A Christianity for the North 354 The Age of the Vikings 356 The Survival of the Christian Empire of the East C o n c lu s i o n 359 Key Te r m s 360 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 357 361 C h a pt e r 1 0 B e c o m i n g “ Th e Wo r l d, ” 1000–1300 ce 363 C o m m e rc i a l C o n n e c t i o n s 364 Revolutions at Sea 364 Commercial Contacts 365 Global Commercial Hubs 365 S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a C o m e s To g e t h e r 369 West Africa and the Mande-Speaking Peoples 369 The Empire of Mali 369 East Africa and the Indian Ocean 372 The Trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean Slave Trade 373 I s la m i n a Ti m e o f Po l i t i c a l Fr ag m e n tat i o n Becoming the “Middle East” 374 Afro-Eurasian Merchants 375 Diversity and Uniformity in Islam 376 Political Integration and Disintegration 376 What Was Islam? 378 I n d i a a s a C u lt u r a l Mo s a i c Rajas and Sultans 379 Invasions and Consolidations What Was India? 380 378 380 S o n g C h i na : I n s i d e r s v e r s u s O uts i d e r s China’s Economic Progress Money and Inflation 382 382 382 374 xv xvi Contents New Elites 383 Negotiating with Neighbors What Was China? 385 384 C h i na ’s N e i g h b o r s A da pt to C h a n g e 385 The Rise of Warriors in Japan 386 Southeast Asia: A Maritime Mosaic 386 C h r i s t i a n E u ro pe 389 Western and Northern Europe 389 Eastern Europe 390 The Russian Lands 391 What Was Christian Europe? 392 Christian Europe on the Move: The Crusades and Iberia Th e A m e r i c a s 393 396 Andean States 396 Connections to the North 397 Th e Mo n g o l Tr a n s f o r m at i o n o f A f ro - E u r a s i a Who Were the Mongols? 401 Conquest and Empire 404 Mongols in China 405 Mongol Reverberations in Southeast Asia The Fall of Baghdad 406 C o n c lu s i o n 407 Key Te r m s 408 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 401 406 409 C h a pt e r 1 1 C r i s e s a n d R e c ov e ry i n A f ro - E u r a s i a , 1 3 0 0 – 1 5 0 0 4 1 1 C o l la p s e a n d I n t e g r at i o n 412 The Black Death 412 Rebuilding States 413 I s la m i c D y na s t i e s 417 The Mongol Legacy and the Rise of New Islamic Dynasties The Rise of the Ottoman Empire 418 The Safavid Empire in Iran 423 The Delhi Sultanate and the Early Mughal Empire 425 We s t e r n C h r i s t e n d o m 428 Reactions, Revolts, and Religion 428 State Building and Economic Recovery 430 Political Consolidation and Trade in Portugal 432 417 Contents Dynasty Building and Reconquest in Spain 432 The Struggles of France and England, and the Success of Small States 433 European Identity and the Renaissance 433 M i n g C h i na 436 Chaos and Recovery 436 Centralization under the Ming 437 Religion under the Ming 438 Ming Rulership 440 Trade under the Ming 441 C o n c lu s i o n 443 Key Te r m s 445 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 445 C h a pt e r 1 2 C o n tac t, C o m m e rc e, a n d C o lo n i zat i o n, 1 4 5 0 – 1 6 0 0 4 4 7 Th e O l d Tr a d e a n d Th e N e w 448 The Revival of the Chinese Economy 449 The Revival of Indian Ocean Trade 449 Overland Commerce and Ottoman Expansion 451 E u ro pe a n E x p lo r at i o n a n d E x pa n s i o n The Portuguese in Africa and Asia Th e At la n t i c Wo r l d 452 453 457 Westward Voyages of Columbus 458 First Encounters 458 First Conquests 459 The Aztec Empire and the Spanish Conquest The Incas 462 The Columbian Exchange 464 Spain’s Tributary Empire 466 Silver 466 Po rt u ga l ’s N e w Wo r l d C o lo n y Coastal Enclaves 468 Sugar Plantations 470 Beginnings of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Th e Tr a n s f o r m at i o n o f E u ro pe 459 468 470 470 The Habsburgs and the Quest for Universal Empire in Europe Conflict in Europe and the Demise of Universal Empire 471 The Reformation 471 Religious Warfare in Europe 475 471 xvii xviii Contents P ro s pe r i ty i n A s i a 475 Mughal India and Commerce 476 Prosperity in Ming China 478 Asian Relations with Europe 478 C o n c lu s i o n 480 Key Te r m s 481 S t u dy Q u e s t i o n s z 481 C h a pt e r 1 3 Wo r l d s E n ta n g l e d, 1600–1750 483 E c o n o m i c a n d Po l i t i c a l E f f e c ts o f G lo b a l C o m m e rc e 4 8 4 Extracting Wealth: Mercantilism 484 N e w C o lo n i e s i n t h e A m e r i c a s 489 Holland’s Trading Colonies 491 France’s Fur-Trading Empire 491 England’s Landed Empire 493 The Plantation Complex in the Caribbean Th e S lav e Tr a d e a n d A f r i c a Capturing and Shipping Slaves 495 Slavery...
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