Chapter 1_sociology.doc - Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective and Research Study guide These come from the PowerPoints and the E-text You should be

Chapter 1_sociology.doc - Chapter 1 The Sociological...

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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective and Research - Study guide These come from the PowerPoints and the E-text You should be familiar with the following terms and concepts, and be able to apply them to examples: - The difference between Psychology and Sociology Sociology- the scientific study of society and human behavior. o emphasizes the influence that society has on peoples attitudes and behavior and the way in which people shape society. o Patterns of behavior, recurring characteristics or events o Greek “logos” = study of + Latin “socius” = companion or being with others. o Discover social principles and apply them to social reform. o Comte developed a grandiose view: sociologists would reform society, making it a better place. o Positivism- the application of the scientific approach to the social world. o Auguste Comte: founder of sociology o 3 stages: Theological, Metaphysical, and scientific o “armchair philosophy”- drawing conclusions from informal observations of social life. Psychology- Based on the individual mind and personality o The study of the mind, as well as the behavior of individuals or small groups o Encompasses and explores areas related to emotion and behavior such as intelligence, stress, memory, grief, mental health, addiction and trauma. - Why Study Sociology? Rethink common sense assumptions of the world Become more active socially Notice diversity Helps us assess truth behind common sense assumptions Draws attention to social crisis - Early Thinkers: A Concern with Social Order and Stability Auguste Comte- used the term sociology to engage the study of society w/ the help of Harriet Martineau. Hebert Spencer (1820-1903) o contributed an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change. o Sometimes called the second founder of sociology o Coined the term “survival of the fittest” o Though that helping the poor was wrong. That this merely helped the “less fit” survive. o Social Darwinism o Disagreed with comte, but did armchair philosophy like comte
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o He said sociologists should not guide social reform. o Evolving from lower form “barbarian to higher form “civilized” Karl Marx (1818-1883) o Wall street Journal has called him one of the greatest modern thinkers (other two freud and Einstein) o Like comte, marx thought that people should try to change society. o His proposal for change was radical: revolution. Thrown out of Germany and settled in England o Engine of human history is class conflict (struggle between capitalists and workers) o Two social classes: Bourgeoisie- the capitalists: those who own the means of production (money, land, factories, machines) Proletariat- the exploited workers: who do not own the means of production o Marxism is not the same as communism. Although marx proposed revolution as the way for workers to gain control of society, he did not develop the political system he said “I am not a Marxist” o Did not think of himself as a sociologist Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) o
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