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Test 1 Review - CHAPTER 13 Heredity The transmission of...

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CHAPTER 13 Heredity- The transmission of traits from one generation to the next Variation- Offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings Genetics- Scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation Gene- Coded information in the form of hereditary units Locus- A gene’s specific location along the length of a chromosome Asexual Reproduction- A single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring Clone- An individual that reproduces asexually Sexual Reproduction- Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents Meiosis- The type of cell division reduces the number o sets of chromosomes from two to one in the gametes Diploid- any cell with two chromosome sets Haploid- A cell with a single cell of chromosome set Somatic cell- Any cell other than a gamete Gamete- “vehicles” that transmit genes from one generation to the next Chromosome- the threadlike gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus Homologous Chromosome- two chromosomes composing a pair have the same length, centromere position and staining pattern Sex Chromosomes- Determines an individuals sex Autosomes- All other Non-sex chromosomes Fertilization- a union of gametes, culminating in fusion of their nuclei Chromatid- One of the two identical copies of DNA making up a chromosome and are joined at the centromere Zygote- a fertilized egg
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Tetrad- four chromatids of a homologous pair Independent Assortment- Meitotic division results in each pair sorting its maternal and paternal homologues into daughter cells independently of every other pair Sexual Life Cycles: Plant Animal Fungi Chapter 14 Mendel- A monk who developed a theory of inheritance several decades before the behavior of chromosomes was observed in the microscope. Observed garden peas. True-Breeding- All offspring are of the same variety Homozygote- an organism having a pair of identical alleles for a characteristic Heterozygote- An organism that has two different alleles for a gene P generation- The true-breeding parents F1 Generation- Hybrid offspring F2 Generation- self pollinated from F1 generation Trait- Each variant for a character, such as purple or white color for flowers
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Character- A heritable feature such as flower color, that varies among individuals Allele- Alternative versions for a gene Dominant- determines the organism’s appearance Recessive- no noticeable effect on the oranism’s appearance Punnett square- diagrammatic device for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup Genotype- genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype- an organism’s traits Codominance- The two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate distinguishable ways Incomplete dominance- The organism’s phenotype is somewhere in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties Qualitative character- Quantitative character-characters vary in the population along a continuum
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