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Unformatted text preview: KIN 216 Applied Human Anatomy
Chapter 1 Review of Syllabus We will use clickers today in class Clicker Registration AFTER you have used your clicker in class, go to the website: http://www.iclicker.com. Click on "register" button and enter your first name, last name, student ID and clicker ID (on back of clicker) Make sure you CORRECTLY enter your student ID (See FAQ sheet posted on ANGEL) Exam/Quiz Rebuttals
If you disagree with the grading of any question(s) and want to make your case for getting points back, you may submit a BRIEF explanation no later than one week after the exam/quiz. Rebuttals should be TYPEWRITTEN and should include: Name and PID Exam form (ex: A,B,C,D) Question number Your explanation (including documentation from textbook, dictionary, or other source, if possible) YOU MUST ATTACH your answer sheet AND/OR scantron feedback sheet !!! NO rebuttals for exam 5 Spelling Anytime an answer on an exam or quiz requires you to write words, you will have points taken off for any spelling errors on (1/2 point removed for each error) Correct spelling is critical in medical and clinical type environments (and life in general) Introduction, History, Anatomical Terminology, Anatomical Organization Background Origin of the term "anatomy" Anatomy = the science of the structure of the human body (functional definition) Ana = up Tomos = to cut Term literally means "to cut up" Structure (anatomy) vs. function (physiology) biology: study of living organisms Both anatomy and physiology are sub disciplines of biology (Greek bios = life, logy = the study of) physiology: science of the function of the human body (Greek physis = growth, nature) Terminology Prefixes Suffixes Neuro = nerve lemma = membrane Sarco (and myo) = muscle algia = pain Chondro = cartilage blast = primitive cell Hema/hemo/hemat = blood lysis = split/break Glu/gly = sugar genesis = build, create Lipo = fat oma = tumor, mass Cyto = cell malacia = softening Osteo = bone cyte = cell *sarcolemma = muscle cell membrane Learning word roots will be very important for this class and for your future Examples of Complete Words neurolemma sarcoblast/myoblast sarcoma chondralgia neuralgia chondroblast chondroblastoma neuroma hemolysis glycolysis gluconeogenesis myalgia nerve cell membrane primitive muscle cell muscle tumor pain in cartilage nerve pain primitive cartilage cell primitive cartilage cell tumor tumor in nerve cell blood cell splitting/breakdown sugar breakdown forming new sugar muscle pain NOTE: You are responsible for any prefixes/suffixes discussed in lecture or shown in the front cover of your textbook; also, literal meaning is sometimes different from practical definition (ex: anatomy) Plurals
Singular a en ex is es is ides on um us us x y Plural ae ina ices a a i ora ges ies Example axilla axillae foramen foramina cortex cortices testis testes epididymis epididymides mitochondrion mitochondria epithelium epithelia humerus humeri corpus corpora phalanx phalanges artery arteries Review of Units Who cares? All of you, if you want to have any understanding about relative sizes of certain body structures (You need to know how to convert units for exam) Meter (m) = 100 m 100 = 1; 101 = 10; 102 = 100 Centimeter (cm) = 102 m 100cm = 1m 1cm = .01m Millimeter (mm) = 103 m 1000mm = 1m 10mm = 1cm Micrometer ( m) = 106 m 1000 m = 1mm 1,000,000 = 1m (aka micron) Nanometer (nm) = 109 m 1000nm = 1 m 1,000,000,000nm = 1m Angstrom () = 1010 m 10 = 1nm Angstroms usually describe bond lengths between molecules *Naked eye can discriminate to about 104 m History of Anatomy Hippocrates: 45 century BC, Greek, Humoralism (he attributed illness to natural causes rather than the gods) Hippocratic oath named after him Aristotle: 384322 BC, Greek, first recorded anatomy drawings (lots of animals) he thought brain cooled blood from heart to maintain body temperature Galen: 2nd century AD, Greek but lived in Rome, pharmacology lots of work with animals as well Vesalius: 1500's, Renaissance era, from Belgium but lived in Italy refuted Galen (got in trouble for it too), can be considered the father of modern anatomy Harvey: 151600s, lived in Europe also contradicted Galen demonstrated function of circulatory system Middle ages Humoralism 515AD, sciences declined often referred to as the Dark Ages No dissections allowed, many anatomy texts burned Ancient theory that health and illness result from a balance or imbalance of bodily humors (fluids) Attributed to Hippocrates, but he didn't really invent theory Lasted ~2500 years Renaissance 20th century 1416 AD "age of enlightenment" First started to preserve cadavers Many important developments in this time period Anatomy is still developing via technology in 2 ways
Microscopic (micro = small, macro = large) Radiologic Hierarchy of Organization Chemical Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Gross Anatomy Anatomical position Common visual reference point Standing with feet together Eyes forward Palms facing ANTERIORLY Thumbs pointed away from body Right and left refer to sides belonging to person/cadaver being viewed Directional and Regional Terms Directional terms: Regional terms: Superior (cranial)/Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal) Medial/Lateral Superficial/Deep Specific body areas Axial (head, neck, trunk also divided into regions) Appendicular (appendages (limbs)) Body Planes and Sections Transverse (horizontal, axial) Coronal (frontal) divides body into superior and inferior sections FUNDAMENTAL transverse plane goes right through middle, but there are several other transverse planes that can be seen divides body into anterior and posterior sections FUNDAMENTAL coronal plane goes right through middle divides body into right and left sections (parasagittal) FUNDAMENTAL sagittal (midsagittal) plane goes right down middle *Sagittarius = "archer" (arrow shoots right through) Sagittal (watch spelling!) Section bears name of plane (e.g., sagittal plane produces sagittal section) Oblique = diagonal betw. horiz./vert. (rarely used) Dorsal body cavity Body Cavities Ventral body cavity Cranial Vertebral Thoracic Abdominopelvic 2 pleural, mediastinum (contains pericardial) Abdominal, pelvic Mucous = secrete MUCUS (spelling!), which is thick fluid that lubricates and protects Serous = thin, watery secretion, function is to lubricate, decrease friction ***Both line cavities mucous ones more likely found in tubes that enter/exit body, serous (known as serosa/ae) found lining organs NOTE each has a parietal (outside) and visceral (inside) membrane All 3 of the following are serous membranes Membranes Pleura = surrounds lungs (visceral & parietal) Pericardial = around heart (visceral and parietal) Peritoneal = in abdominal cavities, surrounding intestines, etc. *There is usually a space betw. the visceral and parietal membranes (called cavity) Other Cavities Oral Nasal Orbital Middle ear Synovial (joints) Microscopic Anatomy Light microscope (beam of light) Electron microscope (beam of electrons) Lower magnification shows cells Resolution is micrometers, which is 100fold increase in resolution over naked eye (2 orders of magnitude) Resolution is nanometers 3 orders of magnitude better than light microscope Can see subcellular organelles, viruses Clinical Anatomy X rays: use ionizing radiation (too much causes cancer) CT scans: stands for Computerized Axial Tomography (graph = pictures), get many transverse (axial) slides through regions Penetrates soft tissue but not hard Good for examining bone and dense structures Fluoroscope = fluorescent screen Problems: 2D image, low resolution, can't see soft tissue, repeated scans dangerous Is 3D, higher resolution than xray Problems: radiation risk, not too good at soft tissue Xray Image PET scan (positron emission tomography) MRI scans: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (but is also tomographic) Reads radioactive isotopes injected into body Isotopes decay and emit positrons, which lead to gamma ray production Sensors detect gamma rays and convert to electrical impulse Problems: low resolution, isotopes expensive Sonography (ultrasound) No xrays involved, can perform multiple scans Uses STRONG magnetic field, radio waves (FM), and computer Has high resolution and can discriminate soft tissues Liquid helium cools coils to create field Radio waves cause protons to move out of line Problems: expensive, noisy, effects of strong magnetic field (?) Image from MRI ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course KIN 216 taught by Professor Pfeifer during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '08