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The Psychosocial Effects of Deployment on Military Children Eric M. Flake, MD, Beth Ellen Davis, MD, MPH, Patti L. Johnson, PhD, Laura S. Middleton, PhD ABSTRACT: Objective: The impact of the Global War on Terror on two million U.S. military children remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial profile of school age children during parental deployment utilizing standardized psychosocial health and stress measures, and to identify predic- tors of children at “high risk” for psychosocial morbidity during wartime deployment. Methods: Army spouses with a deployed service member and a child aged 5–12 years completed a deployment packet consisting of demographic and psychosocial questions. The psychosocial health measures included the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and the Perceived Stress Scale-4. Results: Overall, 32% of respondents exceeded the PSC cut off score for their child, indicating “high risk” for psychosocial morbidity and 42% reported “high risk” stress on the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parenting stress significantly predicted an increase in child psychosocial morbidity (odds ratio 7.41, confidence interval 2.9–19.0, p < 0.01). Parents utilizing military support reported less child psychosocial morbidity (odds ratio 0.32, confidence interval 0.13–0.77, p < 0.01) and parental college education was related to a decrease in child psychosocial morbidity (odds ratio 0.33, confidence interval 0.13–0.81, p < 0.02). The effects of military rank, child gender, child age, and race or ethnic background did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Families in this study experiencing deployment identified one-third of military children at “high risk” for psychosocial mor- bidity. The most significant predictor of child psychosocial functioning during wartime deployment was parenting stress. Military, family and community supports help mitigate family stress during periods of deployment. (J Dev Behav Pediatr 30: 271–278, 2009) Index terms: deployment, military, psychosocial morbidity, child, separation. T o a child, wartime deployment means prolonged separation from a parent, an increased sense of danger, and a routine of daily uncertainty. Since the start of the Global War on Terror, nearly 2 million children in US military families have been affected by a service member deployment. Of the 2.2 million U.S. service members today, 58% have family responsibilities and 40% average 2 children per household. 1 Children’s experience during deployment can differ by age. Currently, children birth to 5 years constitute 40% of children impacted by de- ployment, whereas 33% are 6- to 11-year olds and 25% are adolescents, 12- to 18-years old. Special populations likely most affected by parental deployment include 95,187 (6.9%) dual military families, 74,086 (5.4%) single active duty parents, and 102,053 (7.3%) military families with special health care needs.
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