Western and Goldstein- \u201cHumanitarian Intervention Comes of Age\u201d.pdf - Western and Goldstein Humanitarian Intervention Comes of Age-big picture of

Western and Goldstein- “Humanitarian Intervention Comes of Age”.pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Western​ ​and​ ​Goldstein-​ ​“Humanitarian​ ​Intervention​ ​Comes​ ​of​ ​Age” -big​ ​picture​ ​of​ ​Humanitarian​ ​intervention​ ​(first​ ​conceived​ ​post​ ​CW)​ ​is​ ​decidedly​ ​positive​ ​bc​ ​intl community​ ​has​ ​grown​ ​increasingly​ ​adept​ ​at​ ​using​ ​mil​ ​to​ ​stop​ ​or​ ​prevent​ ​atrocities -hum.​ ​Intervention​ ​has​ ​benefited​ ​from​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​intl​ ​norms​ ​about​ ​violence​ ​(R2P) ● These​ ​strategies​ ​have​ ​helped​ ​to​ ​foster​ ​an​ ​era​ ​of​ ​declining​ ​conflict​ ​(fewer​ ​wars​ ​and​ ​fewer civilian​ ​casualties) -HI​ ​first​ ​conceived​ ​post​ ​CW;​ ​triumph​ ​of​ ​lib​ ​democ>communism​ ​made​ ​western​ ​leaders​ ​optimistic ● Shifting​ ​global​ ​landscape​ ​created​ ​new​ ​problems:​ ​nationalist​ ​or​ ​ethnic​ ​conflicts​ ​famines​ ​in Africa,​ ​new​ ​and​ ​unsettled​ ​world​ ​order​ ​(ethnic​ ​cleansing​ ​or​ ​genocide​ ​became​ ​more​ ​pop) ● Western​ ​pol​ ​allies​ ​struggled​ ​to​ ​respond​ ​(Somalia) ○ Somali​ ​mission​ ​did​ ​succeed​ ​in​ ​saving​ ​civilians​ ​but​ ​was​ ​les​ ​successful​ ​in​ ​coping with​ ​P​ ​and​ ​strategic​ ​realities​ ​of​ ​Somali​ ​society​ ​and​ ​addressing​ ​underlying​ ​conflict ○ Most​ ​peacekeepers​ ​also​ ​withdrew​ ​from​ ​Rwanda;​ ​intl​ ​comm​ ​failed​ ​to​ ​act ○ In​ ​Yugoslavia:​ ​US​ ​sec​ ​of​ ​state​ ​said​ ​US​ ​didn’t​ ​have​ ​“a​ ​dog​ ​in​ ​that​ ​fight”​ ​and regarded​ ​it​ ​as​ ​an​ ​unsolvable​ ​prob ○ Sometimes,​ ​UN​ ​force​ ​made​ ​things​ ​worse​ ​(promising​ ​protection​ ​it​ ​couldn’t​ ​give) -some​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​applying​ ​military​ ​force​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​people​ ​can​ ​prolong​ ​civil​ ​wars​ ​and​ ​intensify violence,​ ​but​ ​intl​ ​actors​ ​can’t​ ​simply​ ​abandon​ ​efforts​ ​to​ ​protect -Bosnian​ ​serb​ ​massacres=turning​ ​point -creation​ ​of​ ​Intl​ ​criminal​ ​tribunal​ ​for​ ​the​ ​former​ ​Yugoslavia​ ​(successful) -NATO​ ​escalated​ ​airstrike​ ​response​ ​to​ ​serbian​ ​attack​ ​in​ ​Kosovo -intl​ ​community​ ​continued​ ​to​ ​adapt​ ​its​ ​approach​ ​to​ ​conflicts​ ​with​ ​sim.​ ​Success:​ ​UN​ ​authorized Australian​ ​troops​ ​to​ ​end​ ​violence​ ​committed​ ​against​ ​Timorese​ ​civilians​ ​by​ ​Indonesians -contrary​ ​to​ ​the​ ​assertion​ ​that​ ​interventions​ ​prolong​ ​civil​ ​wars​ ​and​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​greater​ ​casualties,​ ​the most​ ​violent​ ​and​ ​protracted​ ​cases​ ​(Somalia,​ ​Rwanda,​ ​DRC​ ​etc)​ ​have​ ​been​ ​outcomes​ ​of​ ​lack​ ​of intervention -even​ ​when​ ​civil​ ​wars​ ​don’t​ ​end​ ​right​ ​away,​ ​external​ ​operations​ ​often​ ​mitigate​ ​violence​ ​against civilians​ ​bc​ ​interventions​ ​often​ ​prompt​ ​would​ ​be​ ​killers​ ​to​ ​divert​ ​resources​ ​and​ ​attention​ ​away​ ​to defend​ ​themselves -others​ ​say​ ​that​ ​HI​ ​creates​ ​perverse​ ​incentives​ ​for​ ​rebel​ ​groups​ ​to​ ​deliberately​ ​provoke​ ​states​ ​to commit​ ​violence​ ​against​ ​civilians​ ​to​ ​generate​ ​intl​ ​response​ ​(states​ ​show​ ​the​ ​opp) -changes​ ​in​ ​intl​ ​norms→​ ​efforts​ ​to​ ​perfect​ ​HI ● Media ● Intl​ ​comm​ ​shown​ ​that​ ​it​ ​can​ ​and​ ​will​ ​play​ ​a​ ​role​ ​in​ ​maintaining/restoring​ ​justice (successful​ ​and​ ​legit​ ​peacekeeping​ ​missions) ○ Led​ ​to​ ​decline​ ​in​ ​violence​ ​resulting​ ​from​ ​civil​ ​war​ ​(lower​ ​incidence​ ​of​ ​lethal attacks​ ​against​ ​citizens) -HI’s​ ​still​ ​remain​ ​constrained​ ​by​ ​P​ ​and​ ​mil​ ​realities​ ​(not​ ​always​ ​feasible) -imp​ ​situations​ ​in​ ​Cote​ ​d'ivoire​ ​(peacekeeping​ ​mission​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​legit,​ ​escalated​ ​mil​ ​force​ ​way applied​ ​over​ ​time,​ ​ended​ ​in​ ​a​ ​very​ ​prolonged​ ​way)​ ​and​ ​Angola​ ​(mil​ ​efforts→​ ​fruitless,​ ​intl​ ​comm hardened​ ​resolve) -Libya’s​ ​final​ ​chapter​ ​is​ ​still​ ​unwritten,​ ​but​ ​despite​ ​initial​ ​mil​ ​setbacks​ ​and​ ​frustration​ ​over​ ​the length​ ​and​ ​cost​ ​of​ ​op,​ ​intervention​ ​contributed​ ​to​ ​end​ ​of​ ​civil​ ​war -Lessons​ ​learned: ● Intl​ ​institutions​ ​grapple​ ​with​ ​establishing​ ​legit,​ ​sharing​ ​burdens​ ​across​ ​nations, developing​ ​exit​ ​strategies​ ​etc ● Interventions​ ​that​ ​respond​ ​most​ ​quickly​ ​to​ ​unfolding​ ​events​ ​protect​ ​the​ ​most​ ​lives​ ​(ethnic cleansing​ ​can​ ​occur​ ​early​ ​on​ ​for​ ​example) ● Intl​ ​comm​ ​has​ ​learned​ ​from​ ​Rwanda,​ ​Somalia,​ ​and​ ​Bosnia​ ​that​ ​it​ ​needs​ ​to​ ​access enough​ ​military​ ​pwr​ ​and​ ​diplomatic​ ​muscle​ ​to​ ​go​ ​back​ ​up​ ​a​ ​credible​ ​commitment​ ​to protecting​ ​civilians​ ​and​ ​to​ ​prevail​ ​even​ ​if​ ​things​ ​go​ ​the​ ​wrong​ ​way ● Intervening​ ​govs​ ​must​ ​be​ ​sensitive​ ​to​ ​inev​ ​opp​ ​from​ ​dom​ ​constituencies​ ​and​ ​must​ ​design interventions​ ​that​ ​can​ ​withstand​ ​pressures​ ​for​ ​early​ ​exits​ ​(Libya) ● Leg​ ​HI’s​ ​must​ ​be​ ​supported​ ​by​ ​a​ ​broad​ ​coalition​ ​of​ ​intl,​ ​regional,​ ​and​ ​local​ ​actors; multilateral​ ​interventions​ ​convey​ ​consensus​ ​abt​ ​the​ ​appropriateness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​operations, distribute​ ​costs,​ ​and​ ​establish​ ​stronger​ ​commitments​ ​for​ ​post-intervention​ ​transitions ● Most​ ​daunting​ ​challenge​ ​of​ ​HI​ ​is​ ​the​ ​exit→​ ​intervention​ ​should​ ​be​ ​carried​ ​out​ ​with​ ​a clearly​ ​defined​ ​exit​ ​strategy​ ​(and​ ​comprehensive​ ​transition​ ​strategy) ○ Successful​ ​transition​ ​strategies: ■ ​ ​negotiations​ ​that​ ​end​ ​HI’s​ ​must​ ​avoid​ ​laying​ ​the​ ​groundwork​ ​for protracted​ ​intl​ ​presences ■ Intervening​ ​powers​ ​must​ ​also​ ​proceed​ ​with​ ​the​ ​understanding​ ​that​ ​they cannot​ ​bring​ ​about​ ​liberal​ ​democratic​ ​states​ ​overnight​ ​(objectives​ ​need​ ​to be​ ​tempered​ ​to​ ​match​ ​both​ ​local​ ​and​ ​intl​ ​pol​ ​constraints -humanitarian​ ​interventions​ ​involve​ ​an​ ​inherent​ ​contradiction:​ ​use​ ​violence​ ​to​ ​control​ ​violence (when​ ​carried​ ​out​ ​correctly,​ ​mil​ ​force​ ​can​ ​save​ ​lives ...
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