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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical... Article in Developmental Psychology · November 2004 DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1047 · Source: PubMed CITATIONS 188 READS 1,996 6 authors , including: Mónica Polo-Tomás 43 PUBLICATIONS 2,107 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Tom Price University of Pennsylvania 106 PUBLICATIONS 6,058 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Mónica Polo-Tomás on 28 October 2015. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
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The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment Sara R. Jaffee University of Pennsylvania and Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London Avshalom Caspi and Terrie E. Moffitt Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and University of Wisconsin—Madison Monica Polo-Tomas Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London Thomas S. Price Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford University Alan Taylor Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London Research on child effects has demonstrated that children’s difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the normative (corporal punishment) to the nonnormative (physical maltreatment). The sample was a 1994–1995 nationally representative birth cohort of 1,116 twins and their families who participated in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study. Results showed that environmental factors accounted for most of the variation in corporal punishment and physical maltreat- ment. However, corporal punishment was genetically mediated in part, and the genetic factors that influenced corporal punishment were largely the same as those that influenced children’s antisocial behavior, suggesting a child effect. The authors conclude that risk factors for maltreatment are less likely to reside within the child and more likely to reside in characteristics that differ between families. For much of the last century, research on parent disciplinary practices has described how parents influence their children’s development but has failed to consider how children’s behavior might simultaneously influence the nature of their interactions with parents. Only in the past 30 years have researchers begun to explore the bidirectional nature of parent–child relations and con- cluded that much of what parents do is a response to children’s behavior (e.g., Anderson, Lytton, & Romney, 1986; Bell & Chap- man, 1986; Maccoby & Martin, 1983; O’Connor, 2002; Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992). More recently still, some behavioral geneticists have questioned whether parents have any influence on their children’s behavior beyond that which is transmitted genet- ically (Harris, 1998; Rowe, 1994). This article asks the following
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