PSY 220 Exam 2.docx - PSY 220 Exam 2 October 4th Notes...

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PSY 220 Exam 2 October 4th Notes - Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Conception to birth Typically 38 week period with 3 stages Zygote (germinal) Embryo Fetus Zygote Table and figure 4.1 in textbook 1st 2 weeks after conception Unlikely to notice if pregnant Embryo Table 4.8 3 to 8 weeks Elongation End of the period, shape begins to resemble a baby By 8 weeks, most structures and organs are present Fetus 9-38 weeks Increase in size and body systems begin to function Not independently functioning Neurons → 100,000’s per minute throughout pregnancy Fastest growth 10-20 weeks Important structures Cerebral cortex Age of viability Between 23 and 25 weeks and fetus has a chance to survive Begin to detect fetal behavior HR and movement are in-sync at 36 weeks result in better regulation of behaviors (alertness, attention, less irritable) at 2 weeks post birth Prenatal environment Mom as the environment Nutrition Chronic stress Animal studies Linked to smaller offspring who are prone to physical or behavior problems Teratogens Parental age Teratogens Disease, drugs, and environmental hazards Many diseases pass through placenta directly and attack the fetus Others can attack later 1
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AIDS during birth or breastfeeding Potentially dangerous drugs Cocaine and other hard drugs Caffeine Alcohol Nicotine Aspirin Risks: premature, LBW (low birth weight = less than 5.5 lbs FAS and FAE Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects Known facial characteristics Environmental hazards are treacherous because we are often unaware of them Example: lead exposure Related to cognitive problems Teratogens and epigenetics (audio-clip) How genes switched on and off Critical period Environment has a stronger influence 1st week after conception (Lorenz) (Murphey) Agudi gene Turns fur yellow, never feel full. Predisposed to develop diabetes and cancer High levels of folic acid is not beneficial, only good at moderate levels Autism studies Epigenetic studies Rx and Hx Thalidomide Originally prescribed to women for morning sickness Caused major birth defects Figures: 4.5, 4.6 & 4.8 also important for this lecture October 6th Notes - Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 Parental Age Mother (maternal age) younger Teen mothers: risk for developmental delay and MR John Borkowski, Ph.D., University of Notre Dame: Adolescent parenting project Cognitive readiness Knowledge of infant and childhood development Parenting style Parental attitudes 2
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Why? → low education, poor prenatal care, SES, social influence, and selection Maternal and Paternal age (older) “Older mothers” → risk of miscarriage and stillbirth increase after age 35-40.
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