HD 238 Prelim1 study guide

HD 238 Prelim1 study guide - HD 238 Prelim#1 Study Guide...

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HD 238 Prelim #1 Study Guide 24/09/2007 18:25:00 Object Permanence 1. How should it be measured? (What does it mean, operationally, for someone to have object permanence?) 2. When babies are found to lack or possess, what exactly is the construct they lack or possess? *Paradox because babies can remember even things experienced in utero and represent enough to imitate after birth So why do they have so much trouble? Object permanence task : confluence of issues involving memory, representation, measurement strategies (such as habituation and discrimination) What does having an object concept mean? Object is entity in own right Object and infant exist and move in common space Existence of object is independent of infant’s objects on it Piaget’s Findings Stages 1-2 (Birth-4 months) No search behavior; no reaching behind/under occluding screens When an object goes behind a screen, the infant looks at where the object disappeared, not where it might reappear The object is not differentiated from the infant’s actions on it o Uses this to infer motivation; claims that the infants tries to prolong and recapture the pleasing image by continuing to look where the object disappeared, rather than where it might reappear
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Stage 3 (4-7 months) Search for partially but not totally hidden objects o Toy partially visible beneath cushion infant tries to retrieve toy o Toy completely hidden no attempt to search Can retrieve small, free-standing object by not if its placed on top of, or directly behind a slightly larger object (*note* this could also be because infant can’t reach it) Infant does not see two independent objects when they are contiguous/share a common boundary Stage 4 (8-12 months) A not B error o Trial 1: object hidden in well at A retrieves object at A o Trial 2: object hidden in well at B (in full view of infant) searches at A Piaget: the act of retrieval is tied to spatial location—infant can recreate sensation of object at A simply by searching at A They are more likely to make the error the longer their arms are held **Recent researchers have: Used different measures to control for alternative hypotheses Arrived at different conclusions infants know more about objects than Piaget thought Consider some alternative hypotheses about what might explain the lack of object permanence Possible Alternatives 1. Information processing limitations (limited attention and/or memory) Bower : initial data based on Piaget’s footnote experimenter can observe false object permanence if the object moves behind a screen slowly enough o Adults can’t track trajectory of a bullet; infants can’t track the trajectory of object behind a moving screen
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*However, doesn’t explain it all: o Circular tracking study suggested that there was some evidence of the infants failure to differentiate or coordinate object and location in space
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