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Materials Data Book 2003 Edition Cambridge University Engineering Department
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PHYSICAL CONSTANTS IN SI UNITS Absolute zero of temperature – 273.15 ° C Acceleration due to gravity, g 9. 807 m/s 2 Avogadro’s number, A N 6.022x10 26 /kmol Base of natural logarithms, e 2.718 Boltzmann’s constant, k 1.381 x 10 –26 kJ/K Faraday’s constant, F 9.648 x 10 7 C/kmol Universal Gas constant, R 8.3143 kJ/kmol K Permeability of vacuum, μ o 1.257 x 10 –6 H/m Permittivity of vacuum, ε o 8.854 x 10 –12 F/m Planck’s constant, h 6.626 x 10 –37 kJ/s Velocity of light in vacuum, c 2.998 x 10 8 m/s Volume of perfect gas at STP 22.41 m 3 /kmol CONVERSION OF UNITS Angle, θ 1 rad 57.30 ° Energy, U See inside back cover Force, F 1 kgf 1 lbf 9.807 N 4.448 N Length, l 1 ft 1 inch 1 Å 304.8 mm 25.40 mm 0.1 nm Mass, M 1 tonne 1 lb 1000 kg 0.454 kg Power, P See inside back cover Stress, σ See inside back cover Specific Heat, C p 1 cal/g. ° C 4.188 kJ/kg.K Stress Intensity, K 1 ksi in 1.10 MPa m Temperature, T 1 ° F 0.556 K Thermal Conductivity, λ 1 cal/s.cm. o C 4.18 W/m.K Volume, V 1 Imperial gall 1 US gall 4.546 x 10 –3 m 3 3.785 x 10 –3 m 3 Viscosity, η 1 poise 1 lb ft.s 0.1 N.s/m 2 0.1517 N.s/m 2
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1 CONTENTS Page Number Introduction 3 Sources 3 I. FORMULAE AND DEFINITIONS Stress and strain 4 Elastic moduli 4 Stiffness and strength of unidirectional composites 5 Dislocations and plastic flow 5 Fast fracture 6 Statistics of fracture 6 Fatigue 7 Creep 7 Diffusion 8 Heat flow 8 II. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Melting temperature 9 Density 10 Young’s modulus 11 Yield stress and tensile strength 12 Fracture toughness 13 Environmental resistance 14 Uniaxial tensile response of selected metals and polymers 15 III. MATERIAL PROPERTY CHARTS Young’s modulus versus density 16 Strength versus density 17 Young’s modulus versus strength 18 Fracture toughness versus strength 19 Maximum service temperature 20 Material price (per kg) 21 IV. PROCESS ATTRIBUTE CHARTS Material-process compatibility matrix (shaping) 22 Mass 23 Section thickness 23 Surface roughness 24 Dimensional tolerance 24 Economic batch size 25
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2 V. CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONS OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS Metals: ferrous alloys, non-ferrous alloys 26 Polymers and foams 27 Composites, ceramics, glasses and natural materials 28 VI. EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS Copper – Nickel 29 Lead – Tin 29 Iron – Carbon 30 Aluminium – Copper 30 Aluminium – Silicon 31 Copper – Zinc 31 Copper – Tin 32 Titanium-Aluminium 32 Silica – Alumina 33 VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS TTT diagrams and Jominy end-quench hardenability curves for steels 34 VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS Atomic properties of selected elements 36 Oxidation properties of selected elements 37
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3 INTRODUCTION The data and information in this booklet have been collected for use in the Materials Courses in Part I of the Engineering Tripos (as well as in Part II, and the Manufacturing Engineering Tripos). Numerical data are presented in tabulated and graphical form, and a summary of useful formulae is included. A list of sources from which the data have been prepared is given below.
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