Plants Containing Caffeine 2017.pdf - Caffeine Tea Coffee and Cacao Drugs and the Brain University of California Berkeley Fall Semester 2017 primary

Plants Containing Caffeine 2017.pdf - Caffeine Tea Coffee...

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Caffeine, Tea, Coffee, and Cacao - 1 David Presti - UC Berkeley – Fall 2017 Caffeine, Tea, Coffee, and Cacao Drugs and the Brain - University of California, Berkeley – Fall Semester 2017 • primary natural sources of caffeine: • tea = Camellia sinensis • China and Southeast Asia • coffee = Coffea arabica • northeast Africa • cacao / chocolate = Theobroma cacao • Central and South America • caffeine • isolated from coffee ~ 1820 • 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine • botanical xanthines: caffeine, theophylline, theobromine • effects of caffeine and other xanthines • arousal, alertness, wakefulness • increased heart rate and blood pressure • bronchial dilation • increased kidney output (diuretic) • increased metabolic rate • effects are dose dependent • individual variability and tolerance < 500 mg - increased arousal > 500 mg - anxiety, irritability, insomnia, tachycardia, arrhythmia > 10 grams - tachycardia, arrhythmia • heart attack, stroke, seizure • lethal dose range in humans ~ LD 50 • caffeine dependence • caffeine withdrawal symptoms • fatigue • headache • irritability • adenosine • inhibitory effects in the brain • vasodilation effects in cardiovascular system • caffeine and other xanthines are adenosine receptor antagonists ------------------------------ • tea • made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis • native to Southeast Asia and China • grown today also in India, Sri Lanka, Japan, Africa, South America • for best quality teas, only buds and young leaves are picked • drink made as hot water infusion from roasted leaves • can be made with unroasted leaves, but not as fragrant and tasty
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Caffeine, Tea, Coffee, and Cacao - 2 David Presti - UC Berkeley – Fall 2017 • green teas • leaves are briefly heated soon after picking, to destroy enzymatic and microbial activity
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