Cannabis Notes vOct23 2017.pdf - CANNABIS MARIJUANA psychoactive preparation from plants of the genus Cannabis possible species sativa indica ruderalis

Cannabis Notes vOct23 2017.pdf - CANNABIS MARIJUANA...

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Cannabis – 1 David Presti – UC Berkeley, Drugs and the Brain – Fall 2017 CANNABIS / MARIJUANA • psychoactive preparation from plants of the genus Cannabis • possible species: sativa , indica, ruderalis • or a single, highly variegated, species • domesticated for so long that the existence of any distinct wild-type species is questionable • one of the oldest human cultivars, more ancient relationship than many food plants • cannabis plant is native to central Asia Cannabis ~ cannabis (genus name has become the common name) • used by for thousands of years for its medicinal and psychoactive properties • analgesia = relief from pain • anti-inflammatory • sedative = relaxant • hypnotic = sleep inducing • muscle relaxant = antispasmodic • appetite stimulant • antiemetic = relief from nausea and vomiting • antiseizure • psychedelic mental state • also used as a source of fiber to make rope, cloth, and paper • may have been the oldest historical use • “hemp” (English) • from “hanaf” (German) • from “cannabis” (Latin) • from “kannabis” (Greek) • the word “canvas” derives from cannabis • seed is a nutritious source of healthy edible oil • omega-3 essential fatty acids • according to federal law, it is illegal to grow cannabis for any purpose in the United States • not for fiber, not for edible seed, not for medicine • hemp fiber products and hemp seed can be imported and sold in the US • historical modes of administration for psychoactive and medicinal effects • primarily oral-digestive • infused oil and salves for application to skin • hot rocks or other hot surfaces for incense • last 400 years, since the introduction of tobacco smoking to the world, smoking of cannabis has become a widely used mode of administration • preparation of dried and chopped leaves, flowering tops, and stems of the cannabis plant • marijuana, pot, grass, weed, bhang, ganja • concentrated resin produced by cannabis plant = hash, hashish • any of these cannabis preparations can either be smoked or eaten
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Cannabis – 2 David Presti – UC Berkeley, Drugs and the Brain – Fall 2017 • psychological / mental effects of cannabis • vary with mental set (users’ expectations, prior experience, personality, current state of mind) and physical setting: impact of “set and setting” • psychedelic (mind manifesting) • enhanced sensory perception • intensification of feelings and thoughts • visual imagery, especially with eyes closed • altered sense of self and one’s relation to the external world • heightened anxiety and even panic reactions • weakening of psychological defenses • other pharmacologic effects? • sedation, relaxation • impaired short-term (recent, working) memory • altered perception of time • effects on time perception and recent memory are likely related • physiological effects of cannabis • reddening of the eyes from dilation of blood vessels • increased heart rate
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