Solanaceous Plants Lecture Notes 2017 (1).pdf - SOLANACEOUS POWER PLANTS family Solanaceae the nightshade family perhaps ~ 100 genera amd ~ 2500 species

Solanaceous Plants Lecture Notes 2017 (1).pdf - SOLANACEOUS...

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Solanaceous plants - 1 David Presti – UC Berkeley - 2017 SOLANACEOUS POWER PLANTS • family: Solanaceae, the nightshade family • perhaps ~ 100 genera amd ~ 2500 species • Latin sol = sun and/or solacium = comfort • flower is a distinctive familial characteristic • typically funnel or conical shape, with five fused or nearly fused petals: sun-like, star-like • food plants, cultivated for millennia • potato: Solanum tuberosum • tomato: Solanum lycopersicum • eggplant, aubergine: Solanum melongena • chili pepper: genus Capsicum • “chili” from Nahuatl; “pepper” from Asian black pepper, because of hotness • many varieties, most are Capsicum annum : bell, cayenne, poblano, pasilla, jalepeño, etc • spicy hotness related to concentration of the molecule: capsaicin • naranjilla, lulo: Solanum quitoense • tomatillo: Physalis ixocarpa, P. philadelphica • ground cherry, Cape gooseberry – Physalis peruviana • potato, tomato, chili pepper, lulo, ground cherry: South America • tomatillo: Mexico, Central America • eggplant: east and south Asia • note: sweet potato and yam are unrelated to potato, and unrelated to each other • sweet potato: Ipomoea batatas • morning glory family: Convolvulaceae • South America • yam: genus Dioscorea • family Dioscoreaceae • Dioscorides: Greek physician and botanist, lived circa 40-90 AD • wrote De Materia Medica : compilation of the medicinal properties of 600 plants! • many medicinal uses of yams • source of steroids which led to oral contraceptives • ~500 different species of the genus Dioscorea • Africa, Asia • poisons in the leaves (and unripe fruits) of solanaceous food plants • we eat only the ripe fruits, or tubers (fleshy underground stem) • steroidal glycoalkaloids, for example in tomato and potato plant leaves, and in unripe (green) potato tubers • steroids containing a basic nitrogen and linked to sugars • solanine, chaconine, tomatine • cellular toxins: interference with membranes, ion channels, etc.?
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