Opioid Notes 2017.pdf - OPIUM AND OPIOIDS another plant medicine having an ancient relationship with humans opium poppy Papaver somniferum native to

Opioid Notes 2017.pdf - OPIUM AND OPIOIDS another plant...

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Opium & Opioids Notes – 1 David Presti – UC Berkeley, Drugs and the Brain – Fall 2017 OPIUM AND OPIOIDS • another plant medicine having an ancient relationship with humans • opium poppy: Papaver somniferum • native to central and southern Europe, Mediterranean region, North Africa, Middle East • one of those plants that has been cultivated by humans for so many thousands of years that it is unclear whether any wild type species exist • plant family: Papaveraceae, the poppy family: >40 genera, >700 species • California poppy: Eschscholzia californica • opium • gummy substance obtained from unripe seed pods of the opium poppy • acute (immediate) effects • analgesia = without pain (narcotic = to numb) • anxioloytic = numbing of psychic pain • dream-like state of consciousness • sedation • euphoria • cough suppression • pupil constriction • decreased intestinal motility • historical medicinal uses of opium: sedative, treatment of pain, diarrhea, cough • medicinal / recreational uses documented in perhaps the oldest written records • ancient Sumerian culture 5000+ years ago (located in present-day Iraq) • Sumerian pictographic name translates as "joy plant" • oldest sample of opium is from an ancient Eqyptian tomb, dated as 1500 B.C.E. • ancient Greek myth of Demeter searching for her daughter Persephone, after Persephone was kidnapped by Hades, ruling god of the underworld, she once came upon a field of poppies, picked the flowers, cut open the unripe seed pods, tasted the gummy exudate, and forgot her sorrows over her missing daughter • historical mode of administration: oral-digestive • laudanum: Latin laudare = to praise • name given by Paracelsus to a pill he used as a special remedy • "I possess a secret remedy which I call laudanum and which is superior to all other heroic remedies." • his recipe seems to have been at least: opium, henbane, crushed pearls and coral, amber, musk, several essential oils, and a bit of dried cow's intestine • later, laudanum came to mean opium dissolved in alcohol, sometimes wine, sometimes distilled spirits • alcohol tincture / extract of opium: popular "medicinal" preparation in Europe and America during the 1700s - 1800s • smoking (of tobacco) introduced around the planet from the Americas in the 1500s • led to opium smoking in Asia • ~1803: isolation of the psychoactive component of opium by Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner (1783-1841) • morphine:
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