LEARNING DISABILITIES (sam kirk- 1963)Video: how difficult can this be? Robert Levine. –youtube-summary -5pts –__ to fail??Definitions: IDEA definitions oA disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process involved in understanding or using language spoken or writtenoMay manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spellor do math. oIncludes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia oDoes not include learning problems that are the result of other disabilities or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. oMost states require three criteria be met to receive servicesDiscrepancy between intelligence and achievement An “unexpected” difference b/w general ability and achievement Exclusion criterion The students difficulties are not the result of another known conditions that can cause learning problems A need for special education services The student shows specific and severe learning problems despite standard educational effortsResponsiveness to intervention A local education agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures oThe RTI approach shifts the identification of learning disabilities from a “Wait-to-fail” model to one of early identification and prevention NJCLD (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities) Believes the federal definition of LD contains several weaknesses: oExclusion of adults Learning disabilities can occur across the life span oReference to “basic psychological processes” Invites debate on how to teach students with LD-this is a curricular issue, not a definitional one. oInclusion of spelling as a learning disability Spelling can be subsumed under “written expression” oInclusion of obsolete termsIncludes terms that are difficult to define oWording of the exclusion clause Suggests that learning disabilities cannot occur with other disabilities
A group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities oThese disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction and may appear across the life spanProblems with self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may coexist but do not themselves constitute a learning disability. (exclusionary cause) Although LDs may occur with other handicapping conditions or with extrinsic influences, they are not the result of those influences.