article 1.pdf - J Therm Anal Calorim(2013 111:16911698 DOI...

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Characterization of herbal medicine with different particle sizes using pyrolysis GC/MS, SEM, and thermal techniques Lidiane Pinto Correia Jose ´ Valdila ˆnio Virgulino Proco ´pio Cleildo Pereira de Santana Ana Fla ´via Oliveira Santos Horacinna Maria de Medeiros Cavalcante Rui Oliveira Mace ˆdo Received: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 29 November 2011 / Published online: 15 December 2011 Ó Akade ´miai Kiado ´, Budapest, Hungary 2011 Abstract Analytical techniques have been used to char- acterize compounds from herbal medicine, its products and extracts. The objective of this study was to characterize a variety of particle sizes of Erythrina velutina Willd powder. The samples used in the study were named MUF01 (710 l m), MUF03 (180 l m) and MUF05 (75 l m). The techniques employed were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis such as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) together with pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrome- try (Pyr-GC/MS). SEM enabled us to detect the existence of divergences from the expected results from the granulom- etry process. Thermal analytical techniques (TG and DTA) showed the thermal decomposition profile, corresponding to physical and chemical phenomena. The chromatographic data relative to the peak area of the compounds analyzed evidenced quantitative differences in the chemical compo- sitions of the samples MUF01, MUF03, and MUF05 at 300, 450 and 600 ° C. Neophytadiene 2,6,10-trimethyl, 14 and 3-eicosyne were identified by Pyr-GC/MS at 300, 450 and 600 ° C, and it classified the samples according the peak area values, which were MUF05 [ MUF03 [ MUF01. SEM, DTA and TG confirmed this through particle size uniformity, heat flow, and mass loss, respectively. Keywords Erythrina velutina ± Pyr-GC/MS ± Thermal analysis ± Scanning electron microscopy Introduction Erythrina velutina Willd (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of the Brazilian semi-arid regions. This species popularly known as ‘‘mulungu,’’ in folk medicine is used as anxio- lytic [ 1 , 2 ]. The dry plant milling process is a critical step in the production of phytotherapic drugs intermediaries, due its role in particle size control [ 3 ]. Analytical methods have been used to characterize compounds from herbal medicine, its products, and extracts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the morphology and the particle size of herbal medicine powder; thermal analyses such as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) together with pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrome- try (Pyr-GC/MS) are employed to evaluate the quality of pharmaceuticals [ 4 12 ], as well as atomized extracts of herbal medicine like Erythrina mulungu [ 13 ], and the dis- tinct brands and batches of Cymbopogon citratus teas [ 14 ].
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