Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 (3.1) Ecology- is the study of how...

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Chapter 3 (3.1) Ecology - is the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment. Organism - any for of life Cell - the basic unit of life in organisms; may have single cell or multiple cells Species - groups of organisms that resemble one another in terms of their appearance, behavior, and genetic makeup Population - a group of interacting individuals of the same species occupying a specific area Known Species - from most to least: insects, other animals, plants, fungi, protests, and prokaryotes Community - consists of all the populations of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms living and interacting in an area. Ecosystem - a community of different species interacting with one another and with their physical environment of matter and energy. Ex: puddle of water, patch of woods. Biosphere - all of the earth’s ecosystems together (3.2) Life on the earth depends on three interconnected factors : the one-way flow of high-quality energy from the sun, the cycling of matter, and gravity Most Solar radiation making it through the atmosphere is degraded into longer- wavelength infrared radiation, which encounters the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse Effect - warms our earth by taking in the suns ultraviolet rays in the troposphere and interacting with greenhouse gases such as water vapor, ozone, and carbon dioxide, which increases their kinetic energy, helping warm the troposphere and the earth’s surface Atmosphere - a thin envelope or membrane of air around the planet split into two divisions Troposphere - the inner layer of the atmosphere, extending about 17 kilometers above sea level, containing the majority of the planet’s air, mostly nitrogen and oxygen (~21%) Stratosphere - the next layer of atmosphere about 17-48 kilometers above sea level, its lower portion contains enough ozone to filter out most of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation, which allows life to exist on land and in the surface layers of bodies of water
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Hydrosphere - consists of the earth’s water, liquid water of the surface/underground and water vapor in the atmosphere Lithosphere - solid material (rocks) lying on top of the hot liquid layers of the earth Existence of liquid water - life on earth depends on the liquid water that dominates the earth’s surface. The earth’s orbit is the right distance from the sun to provide the correct temperature for all life on earth. The earth also has the right gravitational mass to keep its iron and nickel core molten and to keep light gaseous molecules in its atmosphere from flying off into space. The surface temperature of earth has been relatively constant (3.3) Terrestrial Biome - land portion of biosphere, such as forests, deserts, and grasslands, characterized by distinct climate and specific species adapted to it Aquatic Life Zones - the watery parts of the biosphere, each containing numerous ecosystems: examples are freshwater life zones likes lakes and streams and ocean or marine life zones such as coral reefs, coastal estuaries and deep ocean
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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 (3.1) Ecology- is the study of how...

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