Chapter 1 Notes.pdf - Chapter 1 Notes I American Origins A...

This preview shows page 1 out of 21 pages.

We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
HDEV
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 1 / Exercise 1
HDEV
Rathus
Expert Verified

Unformatted text preview: Chapter​ ​1​ ​Notes I. American​ ​Origins A. Rift​ ​Valley 1. Middle​ ​of​ ​Africa 2. Supposedly​ ​where​ ​humans​ ​began​ ​4​ ​million​ ​years​ ​ago B. 1-2​ ​million​ ​years​ ​ago​ ​they​ ​were​ ​spread​ ​throughout​ ​the​ ​Eastern​ ​continents C. 2.5​ ​million​ ​years​ ​ago​ ​was​ ​an​ ​ice​ ​age 1. An​ ​ice​ ​sheet​ ​8,000ft​ ​(1.5​ ​miles)​ ​high​ ​covered​ ​the​ ​Northern​ ​Hemisphere 2. With​ ​all​ ​the​ ​ice​ ​on​ ​land,​ ​oceanic​ ​levels​ ​fell​ ​to​ ​reveal​ ​the​ ​Bering​ ​strait​ ​to​ ​the Western​ ​continents 3. This​ ​land​ ​bridge​ ​was​ ​75,000-10,000​ ​years​ ​ago 4. Archaeological​ ​evidence​ ​suggests​ ​three​ ​groups​ ​came​ ​over a) The​ ​paleoindians (1) 30,000-40,000​ ​years​ ​ago b) The​ ​Nadeen c) The​ ​Inuit​ ​(eskimos) (1) 9,000-10,000​ ​years​ ​ago 5. Ice​ ​receded​ ​9,000​ ​years​ ​ago D. ​ ​Archaic​ ​phase 1. 10,000-3,000​ ​years​ ​ago 2. People​ ​became​ ​hunter-gatherers 3. Primitive​ ​tool-making​ ​began 4. Domestic​ ​animals​ ​began 5. Population​ ​began​ ​to​ ​grow 6. Spare​ ​time​ ​developed 7. Primitive​ ​agriculture​ ​developed 8. Technological​ ​and​ ​artistic​ ​development 9. Plant​ ​breeding​ ​began 10. Major​ ​crop​ ​was​ ​corn​ ​(maize) E. Western​ ​Hemisphere:​ ​The​ ​New​ ​World 1. Environment,​ ​Change,​ ​Human​ ​History 2. Seedtime​ ​for​ ​Native​ ​Cultures​ ​in​ ​North​ ​America 3. Northern​ ​Central​ ​Mexico a) Agriculture​ ​Leads​ ​to​ ​Larger​ ​and​ ​Permanent​ ​Settlements b) c) (typed) F. Growth​ ​of​ ​Trade​ ​and​ ​Trade​ ​Centers 1. Mound​ ​Builders​ ​-​ ​societies​ ​that​ ​built​ ​temperamental​ ​mounds a) Built​ ​for​ ​burials​ ​and​ ​official​ ​buildings b) Adina​ ​Culture 2 II. (1) 3,000​ ​years​ ​ago (2) Along​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​river c) Hopewell (1) Along​ ​the​ ​Illinois​ ​River (2) Peaked​ ​about​ ​1,500-1,000​ ​years​ ​ago d) Cahokia (1) Along​ ​Mississippi​ ​River (2) Center​ ​of​ ​trade,​ ​cultural​ ​diffusion,​ ​religion (3) Buffalo​ ​hunters,​ ​woodland​ ​hunters,​ ​and​ ​hunter-gatherers came​ ​in (4) Diminished​ ​about​ ​800​ ​years​ ​ago The​ ​Complex​ ​World​ ​of​ ​Indian​ ​America A. Southeast 1. Carolinas,​ ​Florida,​ ​Alabama,​ ​Tennessee..​ ​Etc​ ​was​ ​the​ ​southeast​ ​region 2. This​ ​Native​ ​American​ ​tribe​ ​rose​ ​12,000​ ​years​ ​ago 3. Subjugated​ ​by​ ​the​ ​British 4. Example:​ ​Natchez,​ ​Mississippi a) Influenced​ ​by​ ​trade​ ​with​ ​Mexico b) Were​ ​mound​ ​builders c) Natchez​ ​was​ ​a​ ​trade​ ​center,​ ​(“true​ ​city”) B. Eastern​ ​Woodlands 1. Virginia​ ​through​ ​Maine 2. Lived​ ​in​ ​small​ ​villages 3. Combined​ ​agriculture​ ​with​ ​hunting​ ​and​ ​gathering 4. Example:​ ​Iroquois a) Lived​ ​in​ ​towns​ ​of​ ​3,000​ ​or​ ​more b) Exhausted​ ​the​ ​firewood​ ​and​ ​game​ ​(semi-permanent) (1) When​ ​they​ ​moved,​ ​they​ ​didn’t​ ​go​ ​far c) Practiced​ ​some​ ​agriculture​ ​(grew​ ​corn) d) Each​ ​town​ ​was​ ​made​ ​up​ ​of​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​long-houses (1) Made​ ​of​ ​logs (2) Subdivided​ ​into​ ​family​ ​living​ ​quarters (3) Families​ ​that​ ​lived​ ​in​ ​one​ ​were​ all​ ​related (4) Social​ ​center​ ​was​ ​in​ ​the​ ​middle​ ​of​ ​the​ ​house (5) Women​ ​supervised​ ​household​ ​running (6) Developed​ ​gender-separation​ ​of​ ​labor (a) Women​ ​were​ ​planters (b) Men​ ​were​ ​hunters (c) Husband​ ​joined​ ​the​ ​wife’s​ ​family (7) Matriarchal​ ​society 5. Partial​ ​example:​ ​Mandans a) Lived​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Missouri​ ​river b) In​ ​the​ ​great​ ​plains 3 c) Traded​ ​with​ ​the​ ​great​ ​plains​ ​indians d) Practiced​ ​agriculture e) Hunted f) Traded​ ​with​ ​hunting​ ​tribes C. Southwest 1. 3,000-200​ ​years​ ​ago,​ ​corn​ ​was​ ​brought​ ​there 2. Largely​ ​desert​ ​region 3. After​ ​700​ ​A.D.​ ​the​ ​climate​ ​changed​ ​and​ ​became​ ​much​ ​drier 4. First​ ​permanent​ ​group:​ ​Anasazi a) Name​ ​means​ ​“Ancient​ ​Alien​ ​Ones” b) Built​ ​dams​ ​for​ ​flood​ ​control c) Channeled​ ​water​ ​for​ ​irrigation d) Many​ ​were​ ​built​ ​in​ ​the​ ​side​ ​of​ ​cliffs e) Mud​ ​brick​ ​buildings (1) Elaborate,​ ​multi-story f) Some​ ​were​ ​craft​ ​specialists,​ ​farmers,​ ​priests D. Mexico 1. One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​earliest​ ​was​ ​Teotihuacan a) Built​ ​step​ ​pyramids (1) Other​ ​tribes​ ​copied b) 200,000​ ​people​ ​in​ ​biggest​ ​city c) Civilization​ ​began​ ​to​ ​decline​ ​after​ ​600​ ​A.D. (1) When​ ​the​ ​next​ ​group​ ​wandered​ ​in,​ ​they​ ​were​ ​abandoned 2. This​ ​next​ ​tribe​ ​was​ ​Chichomex a) Built​ ​step​ ​pyramids​ ​and​ ​massive​ ​temples b) Used​ ​old​ ​civilization​ ​to​ ​their​ ​advantage 3. Tula​ ​peaked​ ​at​ ​about​ ​1,000​ ​A.D. a) Died​ ​out​ ​after​ ​a​ ​200​ ​year​ ​civil​ ​war 4. Aztecs​ ​arrived​ ​200​ ​A.D. a) Settled​ ​in​ ​a​ ​Mexican​ ​valley​ ​called​ ​Texcoco b) Farmed​ ​on​ ​the​ ​lake​ ​(floating​ ​crop​ ​islands) c) Clever​ ​engineers d) Practiced​ ​human​ ​sacrifice e) When​ ​Europeans​ ​arrived,​ ​there​ ​were​ ​about​ ​5-6​ ​million​ ​Aztec people f) Europeans​ ​showed​ ​up​ ​in​ ​1519 g) Aztecs​ ​built​ ​a​ ​dynamic​ ​society (1) Advanced​ ​in​ ​astronomy (2) Rich​ ​in​ ​gold (3) Traded​ ​with​ ​Pueblos E. Great​ ​Plains 1. Region​ ​was​ ​the​ ​Dakotas​ ​down​ ​to​ ​Texas 2. Descendants​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Nadeen 4 III. 3. Brought​ ​with​ ​them​ ​the​ ​bow​ ​and​ ​arrow a) Used​ ​it​ ​to​ ​hunt​ ​Bison 4. Nomadic​ ​(followed​ ​herds​ ​of​ ​Buffalo) 5. Split​ ​into​ ​two​ ​groups a) Navahos (1) Agriculturalists​ ​(farmers) b) Apaches (1) Hunter-Gatherers (2) Went​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Southwest F. Great​ ​Basin​ ​/​ ​Plateau​ ​Region 1. Nevada​ ​area a) Dry​ ​area b) Flatland c) Difficult​ ​to​ ​live​ ​off​ ​of d) Few​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​settled​ ​here 2. Plateau​ ​Region a) Had​ ​abundant​ ​food b) Nez​ ​Perces​ ​lived​ ​here (1) Moved​ ​around​ ​from​ ​season​ ​to​ ​season (2) Several​ ​language​ ​families (3) Had​ ​mission​ ​groupings (a) One​ ​group​ ​caught​ ​fish (b) One​ ​dried​ ​the​ ​fish (c) One​ ​salted​ ​fish (d) One​ ​packaged​ ​fish (e) Such​ ​as​ ​an​ ​assembly​ ​line (f) Divided​ ​and​ ​assigned​ ​labor​ ​tasks​ ​for​ ​efficiency European​ ​Outreach​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Age​ ​of​ ​Exploration A. Changes​ ​and​ ​Restlessness​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Atlantic​ ​World 1. Europe​ ​had​ ​fallen​ ​after​ ​the​ ​fall​ ​of​ ​Rome a) Aqueducts​ ​and​ ​roads​ ​were​ ​no​ ​longer​ ​maintained b) No​ ​more​ ​economy (1) Resorted​ ​to​ ​a​ ​barter​ ​system 2. Europe​ ​started​ ​to​ ​advance​ ​again​ ​during​ ​the​ ​Middle​ ​Ages a) Crusades​ ​brought (1) Trades (2) Technology​ ​(that​ ​was​ ​lost​ ​and​ ​that​ ​was​ ​never​ ​before​ ​had) b) Vikings​ ​appeared (1) Started​ ​out​ ​because​ ​of​ ​Norway,​ ​Sweden,​ ​and​ ​Denmark’s geography (a) Surrounded​ ​by​ ​sea (b) At​ ​first​ ​just​ ​fished​ ​and​ ​traded​ ​with​ ​people​ ​further​ ​out 5 (c) Realized​ ​competitors​ ​were​ ​weak​ ​and​ ​that​ ​they could​ ​just​ ​raid​ ​the​ ​other​ ​ships​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​trading (2) Norwegian​ ​vikings​ ​discovered​ ​and​ ​settled​ ​in​ ​Iceland​ ​and Greenland (3) 986​ ​A.D. (a) A​ ​viking​ ​landed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Americas​ ​and​ ​set​ ​up​ ​a​ ​colony on​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​of​ ​Labrador​ ​in​ ​Canada (4) Thule​ ​were​ ​Inuit (a) Traded​ ​with​ ​the​ ​vikings (5) 1350​ ​-​ ​1450 (a) Mini​ ​ice​ ​age (b) Vikings​ ​lost​ ​contact​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Americas (c) Glaciers​ ​thickened (d) Grasslands​ ​shifted​ ​south (e) Viking​ ​settlement​ ​was​ ​absorbed​ ​in​ ​North​ ​American indian​ ​tribes (f) Continued​ ​to​ ​live​ ​in​ ​Iceland (6) Viking​ ​phase​ ​finished​ ​by​ ​the​ ​1200s B. Crusading,​ ​Trading,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Rise​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Nation​ ​State 1. 476​ ​A.D. a) “The​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Roman​ ​Empire” (1) Last​ ​Roman​ ​Emperor​ ​was​ ​killed (2) Next​ ​Roman​ ​Emperor​ ​called​ ​himself​ ​the​ ​King​ ​of​ ​Italy instead 2. State​ ​of​ ​Chaos​ ​is​ ​settled​ ​by​ ​around​ ​700​ ​A.D. 3. Kingdom​ ​of​ ​France​ ​gets​ ​divided​ ​into​ ​Duchees a) Hierarchy​ ​was​ ​invented​ ​(System​ ​of​ ​leadership​ ​that​ ​determines how​ ​much​ ​power​ ​one​ ​person​ ​has) b) Everything​ ​was​ ​supported​ ​by​ ​Surfs​ ​(like​ ​slaves,​ ​but​ ​supposed​ ​to be​ ​protected) c) Feudalism​ ​develops​ ​out​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Battle​ ​of​ ​Tours 4. Feudal​ ​age​ ​began​ ​after​ ​782​ ​A.D. 5. Four​ ​things​ ​helped​ ​food​ ​production a) Mulled​ ​something​ ​plow b) Discovery​ ​of​ ​crop/field​ ​rotation c) Horse​ ​Column (1) The​ ​way​ ​to​ ​attach​ ​the​ ​horse​ ​to​ ​a​ ​plow (2) Could​ ​now​ ​use​ ​horses​ ​for​ ​farming d) Swamps (1) Helped​ ​with​ ​drainage (2) Good​ ​crop​ ​land 6. During​ ​the​ ​Middle​ ​Ages,​ ​the​ ​King​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​total​ ​control​ ​over​ ​the Nobles 6 a) Nobles​ ​continue​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​power 7. Islam a) A​ ​creation​ ​of​ ​Muhammad (1) From​ ​Mecca​ ​in​ ​Saudi​ ​Arabia b) Muhammad​ ​was​ ​kicked​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Mecca​ ​because​ ​he​ ​had​ ​visions​ ​in 610 (1) Later​ ​became​ ​the​ ​Quran c) Was​ ​different​ ​because​ ​it​ ​was​ ​monotheistic d) Died​ ​in​ ​632 (1) His​ ​followers​ ​went​ ​out​ ​to​ ​conquer​ ​the​ ​Arabian​ ​peninsula (2) Also​ ​went​ ​westward​ ​to​ ​Egypt​ ​and​ ​Northern​ ​African countries e) By​ ​640,​ ​Top​ ​of​ ​africa​ ​and​ ​bottom​ ​of​ ​Spain​ ​was​ ​in​ ​Islam​ ​control f) This​ ​is​ ​not​ ​an​ ​initial​ ​concern​ ​to​ ​Europe (1) What​ ​was​ ​happening​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Mediterranean​ ​was​ ​irrelevant g) Muhammad​ ​was​ ​considered​ ​to​ ​have​ ​brought​ ​the​ ​“last​ ​vision​ ​of God” (1) Christians​ ​and​ ​Jews​ ​were​ ​still​ ​considered​ ​special,​ ​but​ ​not accepting​ ​of​ ​the​ ​last​ ​step 8. Seljuk​ ​Turks​ ​come​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Asia a) Attacked​ ​the​ ​Arab​ ​world b) Converted​ ​to​ ​Islam c) Closed​ ​the​ ​city​ ​to​ ​foreigners (1) Only​ ​for​ ​a​ ​while (2) Opened​ ​up​ ​again d) Around​ ​1050 (1) Byzantine​ ​empire​ ​is​ ​defeated (2) Byzantine​ ​emperor​ ​asked​ ​the​ ​pope​ ​for​ ​help (a) Letter​ ​was​ ​ignored (3) Eastern​ ​Orthodox​ ​Church (a) Based​ ​on​ ​Greek (b) Did​ ​not​ ​like​ ​the​ ​other​ ​(Western)​ ​church (4) Seven​ ​patriarchs (a) Six​ ​are​ ​in​ ​major​ ​mediterranean​ ​cities e) Around​ ​1000​ ​A.D. (1) Split​ ​between​ ​churches​ ​became​ ​final (2) This​ ​is​ ​why​ ​the​ ​Pope​ ​ignored​ ​the​ ​letter 9. Urban​ ​(II)​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​unite​ ​all​ ​of​ ​Europe​ ​under​ ​himself a) In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​do​ ​this,​ ​he​ ​wants​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​massive​ ​military​ ​to​ ​travel to​ ​free​ ​the​ ​Turks b) Crusade​ ​is​ ​the​ ​french​ ​word​ ​for​ ​cross c) The​ ​first​ ​crusade​ ​was​ ​launched​ ​in​ ​1096 d) In​ ​1099​ ​the​ ​first​ ​crusaders​ ​capture​ ​Jerusalem​ ​(success) 7 e) 8​ ​more​ ​crusades​ ​happen​ ​that​ ​do​ ​not​ ​achieve​ ​their​ ​missions (failure) f) The​ ​last​ ​crusade​ ​was​ ​taken​ ​by​ ​the​ ​muslims 10. Changes​ ​in​ ​Europe​ ​brought​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Crusades a) It​ ​begins​ ​the​ ​breakdown​ ​of​ ​futile​ ​Europe (1) Towards​ ​the​ ​nation-state b) Technology (1) They​ ​bring​ ​back​ ​things​ ​like​ ​compasses,​ ​astronomy equipment,​ ​improved​ ​maps,​ ​shipbuilding​ ​technology, military​ ​equipment,​ ​siege​ ​machines,​ ​catapults,​ ​and​ ​led​ ​to the​ ​discovery​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Greek​ ​and​ ​Roman​ ​classics c) Helped​ ​kick​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Renaissance d) Trade​ ​goods (1) Silk,​ ​jade,​ ​porcelain,​ ​coffee,​ ​melons,​ ​sugar,​ ​cotton​ ​cloth, and​ ​spices​ ​(most​ ​important/profitable) (2) Spices​ ​were​ ​the​ ​most​ ​sought​ ​after (a) Drove​ ​early​ ​exploration (3) Wanted​ ​to​ ​bypass​ ​the​ ​monopoly​ ​with​ ​India 11. Byzantine​ ​empire​ ​was​ ​much​ ​more​ ​advanced​ ​than​ ​Europe a) After​ ​the​ ​crusades,​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​chivalry​ ​appears (1) “Code​ ​of​ ​Conduct”​ ​is​ ​the​ ​chivalrous​ ​code​ ​of​ ​the​ ​nobility b) 800-1492 (1) Spanish​ ​worked​ ​to​ ​drive​ ​the​ ​muslims​ ​out c) 1469 (1) Spain​ ​forms (2) Ferdinand​ ​and​ ​Isabella​ ​rule​ ​Spain d) 1492 (1) Successfully​ ​pushed​ ​the​ ​muslims​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Spain e) Late​ ​1300s (1) Europe​ ​is​ ​too​ ​weak​ ​for​ ​exploration (2) Italy​ ​is​ ​making​ ​money​ ​and​ ​had​ ​no​ ​reason​ ​to​ ​explore (3) Holy​ ​Roman​ ​Empire​ ​was​ ​300​ ​separate​ ​states​ ​that​ ​were​ ​not holy,​ ​Roman,​ ​or​ ​an​ ​empire (a) Citizens​ ​did​ ​not​ ​always​ ​listen​ ​to​ ​the​ ​emperor (4) Trade​ ​is​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Baltic​ ​sea (5) England​ ​and​ ​France​ ​are​ ​in​ ​the​ ​100​ ​years​ ​war​ ​(ships​ ​are used​ ​for​ ​war​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​exploring) (6) No​ ​one​ ​is​ ​in​ ​a​ ​position​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​except​ ​Portugal C. Portuguese​ ​Exploration 1. Portuguese​ ​is​ ​kinda​ ​stuck a) They​ ​began​ ​to​ ​sail​ ​to​ ​Africa b) Prince​ ​Henry​ ​set​ ​up​ ​a​ ​school​ ​to​ ​train​ ​explorers 2. 1380s 8 IV. a) Portugal​ ​became​ ​the​ ​first​ ​to​ ​own​ ​territory​ ​outside​ ​of​ ​the​ ​continent 3. 1490s a) Traded​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Songhai​ ​Empire​ ​at​ ​first b) Accidentally​ w ​ eakened​ ​the​ ​Songhai​ ​empire​ ​by​ ​stopping​ ​trade​ ​with them​ ​and​ ​going​ ​around​ ​Africa​ ​by​ ​sea c) Portuguese​ ​began​ ​to​ ​name​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​of​ ​Africa​ ​based​ ​on​ ​what​ ​they could​ ​trade​ ​for​ ​there d) Planted​ ​sugar​ ​cane​ ​and​ ​started​ ​to​ ​by​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​Africa​ ​to​ ​work​ ​the land (1) This​ ​is​ ​when​ ​Europeans​ ​start​ ​to​ ​associate​ ​slavery​ ​with​ ​skin color (2) Discovered​ ​slavery​ ​was​ ​profitable,​ ​so​ ​expanded throughout​ ​the​ ​world The​ ​Continued​ ​Quest​ ​For​ ​Asian​ ​Trade A. Explorers 1. Portugese​ ​are​ ​making​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​money a) They​ ​realize​ ​they​ ​can​ ​make​ ​more​ ​money​ ​by​ ​buying​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Arabs than​ ​buying​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Italians 2. Diaz​ ​sailed​ ​from​ ​Portugal​ ​around​ ​Africa​ ​to​ ​find​ ​the​ ​Indian​ ​Ocean 3. Vasco​ ​DaGama​ ​sailed​ ​all​ ​the​ ​way​ ​to​ ​India​ ​from​ ​Portugal a) Wanted​ ​to​ ​trade​ ​for​ ​gold,​ ​but​ ​mostly​ ​traded​ ​for​ ​spices b) When​ ​he​ ​got​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Portugal,​ ​he​ ​made​ ​a​ ​several​ ​thousand percent​ ​profit​ ​on​ ​his​ ​spices 4. Columbus a) An​ ​Italian​ ​from​ ​Genoa b) Took​ ​to​ ​the​ ​sea​ ​early​ ​in​ ​his​ ​life​ ​(early-mid​ ​teens) c) Sailed​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​Mediterranean​ ​seas d) Started​ ​sailing​ ​from​ ​portugal (1) Led​ ​him​ ​to​ ​the​ ​coast​ ​of​ ​Africa e) Wanted​ ​to​ ​sail​ ​West​ ​to​ ​get​ ​to​ ​India (1) Thought​ ​the​ ​earth​ ​was​ ​smaller​ ​than​ ​it​ ​was (2) Asked​ ​King​ ​of​ ​Portugal​ ​for​ ​permission (3) He​ ​said​ ​no​ ​because​ ​they​ ​could​ ​already​ ​get​ ​there​ ​going East (4) Goes​ ​to​ ​Spain​ ​to​ ​ask​ ​King​ ​Ferdinand​ ​and​ ​Queen​ ​Isabella (5) Queen​ ​Isabella​ ​supports​ ​him​ ​with​ ​three​ ​ships​ ​after​ ​the Spanish​ ​war​ ​is​ ​over (a) War​ ​ships (b) Nina,​ ​Pinta,​ ​Mayflower (c) Got​ ​a​ ​crew​ ​of​ ​about​ ​20-30 f) Sets​ ​off​ ​West (1) Was​ ​confident​ ​he​ ​would​ ​find​ ​Asia (2) Kept​ ​two​ ​log​ ​books 9 V. (a) One​ ​showed​ ​the​ ​true​ ​distance (b) One​ s​ howed​ ​the​ ​shorter​ ​distance​ ​that​ ​he​ tricked​ ​his crew​ ​with (3) Took​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​longer​ ​than​ ​he​ ​had​ ​expected (a) His​ ​crew​ ​was​ ​ready​ ​to​ ​rebel​ ​and​ ​go​ ​back (b) Columbus​ ​convinced​ ​them​ ​to​ ​give​ ​him​ ​three​ ​more days (c) Two​ ​days​ ​later,​ ​they​ ​found​ ​a​ ​floating​ ​branch​ ​with leaves​ ​attached (4) First​ ​land​ ​seen​ ​was​ ​the​ ​bahama​ ​islands (5) Next​ ​found​ ​Cuba (a) He​ ​thought​ ​it​ ​was​ ​China (6) Called​ ​the​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​‘Indians’​ ​because​ ​he​ ​thought he​ ​was​ ​in​ ​India (a) Later​ ​thought​ ​that​ ​he​ ​was​ ​on​ ​the​ ​poorer​ ​islands​ ​of India g) When​ ​he​ ​went​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Spain,​ ​he​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​try​ ​again​ ​to​ ​find​ ​Asia (1) Spanish​ ​King​ ​and​ ​Queen​ ​are​ ​impressed​ ​with​ ​his​ ​discovery (2) They​ ​send​ ​him​ ​back​ ​again​ ​with​ ​18​ ​ships h) Columbus​ ​goes​ ​back​ ​3​ ​more​ ​times (1) Died​ ​thinking​ ​he​ ​was​ ​in​ ​Asia 5. Giovanni​ ​Cabbotti​ ​(John​ ​Cabot) a) Explored​ ​the​ ​East​ ​coast​ ​of​ ​North​ ​America 6. Ponce​ ​De​ ​Leon a) Discovered​ ​Florida 7. Cortés a) Discovered​ ​the​ ​Aztec​ ​Empire 8. Cartier a) Set​ ​up​ ​the​ ​first​ ​French​ ​colony 9. Hudson a) Dutch​ ​explorer​ ​that​ ​looked​ ​for​ ​the​ ​North-West​ ​passage b) Died​ ​after​ ​his​ ​ship​ ​became​ ​ice-locked​ ​in​ ​Hudson’s​ ​bay B. Transatlantic​ ​World 1. Fisherman​ ​from​ ​Portugal,​ ​Spain,​ ​and​ ​England​ ​became​ ​common​ ​on​ ​the American​ ​coast 2. Much​ ​trading​ ​happened​ ​there​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Native​ ​Americans a) Native​ ​Americans​ ​saw​ ​Europeans​ ​as​ ​trade​ ​partners​ ​and welcomed​ ​them b) They​ ​didn’t​ ​realize​ ​the​ ​Europeans​ ​were​ ​invading 3. Earth​ ​was​ ​going​ ​through​ ​a​ ​mini​ ​ice-age a) Eskimos​ ​moved​ ​south b) Caused​ ​wars​ ​with​ ​other​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​who​ ​already​ ​lived​ ​there The​ ​Challenges​ ​of​ ​Mutual​ ​Discovery 10 A. Native​ ​Americans 1. Columbus​ ​saw​ ​what​ ​he​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​see​ ​when​ ​he​ ​arrived​ ​in​ ​America: darker​ ​skinned​ ​people 2. Two​ ​ideas​ ​about​ ​the​ ​Native​ ​Americans a) Pure​ ​and​ ​honorable b) Heathen​ ​idolaters (1) Primitive 3. The​ ​prejudice​ ​began​ ​because​ ​of​ ​their​ ​ancient​ ​technology a) No​ ​written​ ​language b) Tools​ ​made​ ​of​ ​bone 4. Believed​ ​everything​ ​had​ ​a​ ​spirit​ ​and​ ​was​ ​interconnected a) Called​ ​perceived​ ​kinship b) Linked​ ​humans​ ​and​ ​animals​ ​together c) Was​ ​highly​ ​ceremonial d) Also​ ​included​ ​trade​ ​in​ ​the​ ​ceremonial​ ​system (1) Called​ ​reciprocal​ ​trade (2) Both​ ​parties​ ​get​ ​something​ ​that​ ​they​ ​want 5. Europeans​ ​brought​ ​with​ ​them​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​cheap​ ​things a) Glass,​ ​shiny​ ​things,​ ​knicknacks b) Successful​ ​in​ ​trading​ ​these​ ​things​ ​for​ ​more​ ​valuable​ ​Native American​ ​goods c) Sometimes​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​felt​ ​as​ ​if​ ​another​ ​European​ ​item called​ ​to​ ​them (1) If​ ​the​ ​Europeans​ ​would​ ​not​ ​trade​ ​for​ ​it,​ ​the​ ​Native American​ ​sometimes​ ​resorts​ ​to​ ​theft 6. Land a) Europeans​ ​believed​ ​in​ ​owning​ ​the​ ​land b) Natives​ ​believed​ ​in​ ​using​ ​the​ ​land 7. Europeans​ ​tried​ ​to​ ​trade​ ​items​ ​for​ ​the​ ​land a) Natives​ ​misunderstood​ ​and​ ​saw​ ​this​ ​as​ ​coming​ ​to​ ​join​ ​them​ ​to​ ​live on​ ​the​ ​land b) Idea​ ​of​ ​owning​ ​land​ ​was​ ​foreign​ ​to​ ​them 8. Europeans​ ​did​ ​not​ ​mess​ ​up​ ​the​ ​Natives’​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​the​ ​universe B. The​ ​Columbian​ ​Exchange 1. Most​ ​important​ ​thing​ ​brought​ ​over​ ​by​ ​accident​ ​was​ ​disease a) Europeans​ ​brought​ ​over​ ​and​ ​spread​ ​diseases​ ​that​ ​they​ ​had previously​ ​acquired​ ​immunity​ ​to b) At​ ​the​ ​time​ ​of​ ​Columbus’​ ​arrival,​ ​there​ ​were​ ​multimillion​ ​Natives​ ​in the​ ​land,​ ​and​ ​90-95%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​were​ ​killed​ ​by disease c) Biggest​ ​one​ ​was​ ​smallpox 11 d) Also​ ​brought​ ​measles,​ ​chicken​ ​pox,​ ​malaria,​ ​yellow​ ​fever, influenza,​ ​the​ ​common​ ​cold,​ ​the​ ​black​ ​death​ ​/​ ​bubonic​ ​plague, typhus e) The​ ​only​ ​disease​ ​believed​ ​to​ ​come​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Europe​ ​from​ ​the Americas​ ​was​ ​Syphilis​ ​(an​ ​STD) 2. Animals a) Europeans​ ​brought​ ​horses,​ ​cattle,​ ​domesticated​ ​pigs,​ ​sheep, goats,​ ​oxen b) Animals​ ​that​ ​went​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Europe​ ​were​ ​turkeys,​ ​alpacas,​ ​llamas, and​ ​guinea​ ​pigs 3. Plants a) From​ ​Europe (1) Grains:​ ​ ​wheat,​ ​white​ ​rice,​ ​barley,​ ​millet,​ ​oats (2) Vegetables:​ ​ ​spinach,​ ​cabbage,​ ​turnips,​ ​olives (3) Fruits:​ ​ ​bananas,​ ​melons (4) Other​ ​foods:​ ​ ​sugar​ ​cane,​ ​coffee (5) Grasses/weeds:​ ​ ​dandelions,​ ​clover,​ ​daisies,​ ​ragweed, kentucky​ ​bluegrass b) Brought​ ​back​ ​to​ ​Europe (1) Vegetables:​ ​ ​corn​ ​(most​ ​important),​ ​potatoes​ ​(white, sweet),​ ​beans​ ​(snap,​ ​kidney,​ ​lima)​ ​peppers​ ​(red,​ ​green, yellow,​ ​chilli),​ ​squash (2) Fruits:​ ​ ​tomatoes,​ ​pineapples,​ ​pumpkins,​ ​papayas,​ ​guavas, avocados,​ ​manioc,​ ​chicle,​ ​cacao,​ ​peanuts,​ ​tobacco 4. Problems​ ​arose a) Some​ ​plants/animals​ ​could​ ​be​ ​pushed​ ​out​ ​by​ ​new​ ​plants/animals or​ ​overgrazing C. New​ ​Worlds​ ​in​ ​Africa​ ​and​ ​America 1. New​ ​world​ ​had​ ​a​ ​cooperative​ ​labor​ ​system a) Labor​ ​was​ ​for​ ​the​ ​good​ ​of​ ​all 2. Did​ ​not​ ​h...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture