2Genetics Fall 2016-2.pptx

2Genetics Fall 2016-2.pptx - Genetics and the Control of...

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Genetics and the Control of Cell Function and Inheritance 1
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Function of DNA in Controlling Cell Function Stable DNA molecule Contains the information needed for control of cell structure and function Every cell in the body contains the same genetic information. Each cell type uses only a portion depending on its structure and function. 2
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3 Structure of DNA
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4 DNA Replication Untwisting and unzipping of the DNA strand Single strand acts as a template Complementary base pairing by DNA polymerase Adenine-thymine; cytosine-guanine
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5 DNA
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DNA Mutations Mutations Substitution of one base pair for another, the loss or addition of one or more base pairs, or rearrangements of base pairs Occur spontaneously; whereas, others occur because of environmental agents, chemicals, and radiation May arise in somatic cells or in germ cells Germ cell mutations can be inherited. 6
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DNA Repair Endonucleases —recognize local distortions of the DNA and remove the distorted region. Gap is then filled by a DNA polymerase using the intact complementary strand as a template. Loss of repair allows errors to accumulate. Protooncogene and cancer Tumor suppressor gene and cancer 7
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Transcription Transcription 8 Messenger RNA Is a Copy of a Gene RNA is synthesized from a DNA template, resulting in the formation of messenger RNA (mRNA) mRNA moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm
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Protein Synthesis Messenger RNA Forms a template for protein synthesis Transfer RNA Delivers the activated form of amino acids to protein molecules in the ribosomes Ribosomal RNA Involves the physical structure in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis takes place 9
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Transfer RNA Carries an amino acid Lines up by matching its anticodon to the mRNA’s codon 10
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Ribosomal RNA Moves along the messenger RNA , moving transfer RNAs into position Connects amino acids that the tRNAs have carried into position 11 ribosome
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12
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Chromosome Composition Autosomes 22 pairs of chromosomes alike in males and females Sex chromosomes Make up the 23rd pair, determining the sex of a person All males have an X and a Y chromosome.
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  • Barbara Pieper

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