Animal Behavior Inquiry_.pdf - Animal​ ​Behavior​...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal​ ​Behavior​ ​Inquiry: Objective:​​ ​Use​ ​inquiry​ ​skills​ ​to​ ​identify​ ​and​ ​study​ ​invertebrate​ ​behaviors. Use​ ​the​ ​CER​ ​process​ ​to​ ​present​ ​and​ ​explain​ ​your​ ​results. Background Invertebrates​ ​are​ ​a​ ​broad​ ​grouping​ ​of​ ​animals​ ​that​ ​lack​ ​vertebrate,​ ​or backbones.​ ​ ​These​ ​organisms​ ​provide​ ​many​ ​essential​ ​roles​ ​in​ ​nature, ranging​ ​from​ ​decomposers​ ​to​ ​parasites​ ​to​ ​essential​ ​pollinators.​ ​ ​Many​ ​of these​ ​invertebrates​ ​have​ ​simple​ ​neural​ ​systems​ ​that​ ​allow​ ​them​ ​to​ ​respond to​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​their​ ​environment.​ ​ ​These​ ​environmental​ ​changes​ ​cause behavioral​ ​changes,​ ​sometimes​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​behaviors​ ​that​ ​increase​ ​the invertebrates’​ ​exposure​ ​to​ ​the​ ​stimulus​ ​and​ ​sometimes​ ​reducing​ ​their exposure​ ​to​ ​the​ ​stimulus. Ethology​​ ​is​ ​the​ ​study​ ​of​ ​animal​ ​behavior.​ ​Many​ ​behaviors​ ​involve movement​ ​of​ ​the​ ​animal​ ​within​ ​its​ ​environment.​ ​In​ ​this​ ​exercise,​ ​you​ ​will investigate​ ​some​ ​innate​ ​behaviors​ ​(instincts)​ ​of​ ​invertebrates.​ ​ ​The invertebrates​ ​you​ ​will​ ​be​ ​studying​ ​respond​ ​and​ ​move​ ​to​ ​different​ ​stimuli such​ ​as​ ​light​ ​and​ ​moisture.​ ​ ​Orientation​ ​is​ ​a​ ​process​ ​by​ ​which​ ​animals position​ ​themselves​ ​with​ ​respect​ ​to​ ​spatial​ ​features​ ​of​ ​their​ ​environments. Taxis​​ ​involves​ ​the​ ​turning​ ​of​ ​an​ ​animal's​ ​body​ ​relative​ ​to​ ​a​ ​stimulus​ ​-​ ​either toward​ ​or​ ​away.​ ​Kinesis​​ ​is​ ​a​ ​random​ ​(non-directional)​ ​movement​ ​of​ ​an animal​ ​in​ ​relation​ ​to​ ​a​ ​stimulus,​ ​like​ ​cockroaches​ ​scattering​ ​when​ ​the​ ​light​ ​is turned​ ​on. Preparing​ ​for​ ​Experimentation Develop​ ​a​ ​testing​ ​area​ ​that​ ​will​ ​allow​ ​you​ ​to​ ​test​ ​your​ ​hypothesis.​ ​ ​Clear Tupperware,​ ​cups,​ ​plastic​ ​containers,​ ​choice​ ​chambers,​ ​and​ ​Petri​ ​dishes​ ​all make​ ​excellent​ ​arenas​ ​for​ ​experimentation.​ ​ ​You​ ​may​ ​choose​ ​to​ ​test​ ​your hypothesis​ ​in​ ​a​ ​more​ ​natural​ ​setting,​ ​but​ ​realize​ ​it​ ​will​ ​be​ ​harder​ ​to​ ​control many​ ​of​ ​the​ ​variables. Questions​ ​for​ ​potential​ ​experiments include: Animal​ ​Behavior​ ​Inquiry​ ​Tracker: 1.​ ​After​ ​reading​ ​the​ ​background,​ ​what​ ​other​ ​information​ ​do​ ​you​ ​need? Where​ ​will​ ​you​ ​find​ ​this​ ​information? What​ ​other​ ​types​ ​of​ ​invertebrates​ ​are​ ​there?​ ​This​ ​information​ ​can​ ​be​ ​found​ ​in​ ​the internet. 2.​ ​Compare​ ​and​ ​Contrast​ ​taxis​ ​and​ ​kinesis. They​ ​are​ ​both​ ​types​ ​of​ ​movement.​ ​Kinesis​ ​in​ ​an​ ​undirected​ ​type​ ​of​ ​movement meanwhile​ ​Taxis​ ​is​ ​a​ ​directed​ ​type​ ​of​ ​movement. 3.​ ​Observe​ ​the​ ​invertebrates​ ​in​ ​a ​natural​ ​setting​ ​for​ ​5​ ​to​ ​7​ ​minutes.​ ​What patterns​ ​or​ ​behaviors​ ​do​ ​you​ ​notice? Both​ ​ends​ ​move​ ​but​ ​one​ ​moves​ ​more​ ​than​ ​the​ ​other.​ ​Moves​ ​quicker​ ​on​ ​slippery surface.​ ​Leaves​ ​a​ ​watery/slimy​ ​trace.​ ​Likes​ ​the​ ​dark.​ ​Searches​ ​for​ ​cover.​ ​Does​ ​not​ ​like being​ ​in​ ​the​ ​light.​ ​Stretches​ ​so​ ​long​ ​that​ ​it​ ​helps​ ​him​ ​move​ ​faster.​ ​Both​ ​of​ ​his​ ​muscles help​ ​him​ ​shrink​ ​when​ ​feeling​ ​threatened. 4.​ ​From​ ​these​ ​observations,​ ​what​ ​assumptions​ ​can​ ​you​ ​make​ ​about invertebrate​ ​ethology?​ ​ ​What​ ​causes​ ​invertebrates​ ​to​ ​move​ ​or​ ​react? Temperature​ ​and​ ​light. 5.​ ​Choose​ ​one​ ​of​ ​your​ ​assumptions​ ​that​ ​you​ ​would​ ​like​ ​to​ ​study​ ​more deeply.​ ​Generate​ ​a​ ​hypothesis​​ ​that​ ​addresses​ ​one​ ​independent​ ​variable​​ ​and​ ​one dependent​ ​variable​. Hypothesis:​ ​The​ ​temperature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​surface​ ​will​ ​cause​ ​the​ ​worm​ ​to​ ​move differently. Independent​ ​Variable:​ ​Temp. Dependent​ ​Variable:​ ​Type​ ​of​ ​movement​ ​and​ ​how​ ​long​ ​it​ ​takes​ ​them​ ​to move. 6.​ ​Determine​ ​the​ ​type​ ​of​ ​data​​ ​you​ ​will​ ​need​ ​to​ ​collect​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​study​ ​this ethological​ ​phenomenon. a.​ ​Quantitative​:​ W ​ hich​ ​direction​ ​it​ ​moves. b.​ ​Qualitative​:​ ​How​ ​much​ ​it​ ​moves. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Create​ ​a​ ​system​ ​for​ ​collecting​ ​this​ ​data.​ ​It​ ​may​ ​be​ ​a​ ​data​ ​table,​ ​chart, pictograph,​ ​or​ ​picture. A​ ​data​ ​table. 7.​ ​Design​ ​an​ ​experiment​ ​that​ ​will​ ​allow​ ​you​ ​to​ ​collect​ ​the​ ​data​ ​you​ ​will​ ​need to​ ​analyze​ ​your​ ​invertebrate​ ​behaviors.​ ​ ​Your​ ​experiment​ ​will​ ​need​ ​to clearly​ ​and​ ​simply​ ​study​ ​only​ ​your​ ​independent​ ​variable.​ ​ ​You​ ​will​ ​also need​ ​a​ ​very​ ​clear​ ​and​ ​simple​ ​process​ ​to​ ​collect​ ​data​ ​for​ ​your​ ​dependent variable. 8.​ ​Answer​ ​the​ ​following​ ​questions​ ​before​ ​moving​ ​on: a.​ ​Will​ ​my​ ​design​ ​answer​ ​the​ ​question? Yes​ ​it​ ​will​ ​answer​ ​the​ ​question. b.​ ​Have​ ​I​ ​considered​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​variables? Yes​ ​I​ ​have​ ​considered​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​variables. c.​ ​How​ ​will​ ​I​ ​record​ ​and​ ​analyze​ ​my​ ​data? Use​ ​a​ ​ruler​ ​to​ ​see​ ​how​ ​much​ ​it​ ​moves​ ​while​ ​recording​ ​the​ ​information​ ​in​ ​the​ ​data table. Once​ ​this​ ​procedure​ ​has​ ​been​ ​approved​ ​by​ ​Mr.​ ​H,​ ​then​ ​run​ ​your​ ​test. Distance Direction Temp. TIme -9​ ​cm​ ​from origin Left​ ​Cold​ ​side 40°C 2​ ​minutes​ ​42 seconds 6​ ​cm​ ​from​ ​origin Right​ ​side​ ​warm 100°C side 1​ ​minute​ ​37 seconds -8.3​ ​cm​ ​from origin 43​ ​seconds Left​ ​side 40C​ ​or​ ​100°C 9.​ ​Analyze​ ​your​ ​data.​ ​How​ ​can​ ​you​ ​make​ ​your​ ​data​ ​tell​ ​a​ ​story?​ ​What​ ​forms might​ ​you​ ​convert​ ​it​ ​into​ ​to​ ​make​ ​better​ ​sense?​ ​Do​ ​you​ ​need​ ​to​ ​make​ ​a graph?​ ​A​ ​pictograph?​ ​A​ ​drawing?​ ​ ​Use​ ​the​ ​graph​ ​choice​ ​graphic​​ ​to​ ​help​ ​you decide​ ​the​ ​best​ ​way​ ​to​ ​present​ ​your​ ​data. 10.​ ​Generate​ ​a​ ​conclusion​ ​to​ ​your​ ​hypothesis.​ ​Does​ ​your​ ​data​ ​support​ ​your initial​ ​assumption​ ​and​ ​respective​ ​hypothesis?​ ​ ​Follow​ ​the​ ​CER​ ​format (Claim,​ ​Evidence,​ ​Reasoning).​ ​ ​Make​ ​sure​ ​your​ ​reasoning​ ​does​ ​not​ ​include assumptions,​ ​but​ ​is​ ​based​ ​entirely​ ​on​ ​observations​ ​and​ ​collected​ ​data.​ ​The conclusion​ ​should​ ​identify​ ​key​ ​details​ ​and​ ​be​ ​supported​ ​by​ ​your​ ​data. Make​ ​sure​ ​to​ ​give​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​background​ ​of​ ​the​ ​lab​ ​to​ ​start​ ​with. CER-Evidence/Claim​ ​Organizer Guiding​ ​Question:​ ​What​ ​temperature​ ​does​ ​a​ ​worm​ ​prefer​ ​to​ ​be​ ​in? What​ ​we​ ​tested: We​ ​compared:​ ​we​ ​compared​ ​the​ ​effects​ ​of​ ​different​ ​temperatures​ ​has​ ​on​ ​a preference. We​ ​changed​ ​(independent​ ​variable)​ ​Temperature We​ ​measured​ ​(dependent​ ​variable)​ ​ ​The​ ​distance​ ​and​ ​time​ ​a​ ​worm​ ​moved preferable​ ​temperature. Evidence​ ​1: I​ ​observed​ ​that​ ​when​ ​we​ ​changed​ ​the​ ​temperature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​worm,​ ​the​ ​worm​ while​ ​to​ ​decide​ ​it's​ ​preferable​ ​temperature. Evidence​ ​2: I​ ​also​ ​observed​ ​that​ ​when​ ​we​ ​changed​ ​the​ ​temperature​ ​to​ ​a​ ​colder​ ​tempera started​ ​to​ ​move​ ​slowly​ ​to​ ​warmer​ ​side. Evidence​ ​3: A​ ​trend​ ​in​ ​the​ ​data​ ​is​ ​that​ ​the​ ​worm​ ​always​ ​moved​ ​to​ ​the​ ​cold​ ​side​ ​but​ ​then to​ ​move​ ​to​ ​the​ ​warm​ ​side​ ​to​ ​get​ ​warm. Claim:​ ​The​ ​Temperature​ ​that​ ​the​ ​worm​ ​prefer​ ​was​ ​cold​ ​temperature. My​ ​CER Claim:​ ​Invertebrates​ ​prefer​ ​colder​ ​temperatures. Evidence: -The​ ​invertebrate​ ​moved​ ​to​ ​the​ ​colder​ ​side​ ​of​ ​the​ ​container​ ​in​ ​2 minutes​ ​and​ ​42​ ​seconds. -The​ ​interverte​ ​moved​ ​to​ ​the​ ​cooler​ ​side​ ​faster​ ​the​ ​third​ ​time​ ​than​ ​the first​ ​time,​ ​both​ ​times​ ​the​ ​invertebrates​ ​choose​ ​the​ ​cooler​ ​side. Reasoning: Invertebrates​ ​prefer​ ​to​ ​be​ ​in​ ​cooler​ ​temperatures.​ ​Our​ ​data shows​ ​that​ ​the​ ​invertebrate​ ​choose​ ​to​ ​move​ ​to​ ​the​ ​side​ ​with​ ​a​ ​cooler temperature​ ​getting​ ​there​ ​in​ ​43​ ​seconds,​ ​while​ ​moving​ ​to​ ​the​ ​warmer​ ​side in​ ​1​ ​minute​ ​and​ ​37​ ​seconds.​ ​This​ ​shows​ ​that​ ​invertebrates​ ​prefer​ ​to​ ​be​ ​in colder​ temperatures. Critique: 1.​ ​What​ ​do​ ​you​ ​notice​ ​about​ ​the​ ​claim?​ ​ ​Using​ ​the​ ​CER​ ​rubric,​ ​how would​ ​you​ ​rate​ ​this​ ​claim? I​ ​notice​ ​that​ ​the​ ​claim​ ​answers​ ​the​ ​question​ ​completely.​ ​I​ ​would​ ​rate his​ ​claim​ ​with​ ​a​ ​4. 2.​ ​What​ ​do​ ​you​ ​notice​ ​about​ ​the​ ​data?​ ​ ​What​ ​other​ ​data​ ​would​ ​you want​ ​to​ ​see​ ​to​ ​have​ ​it​ ​tell​ ​a​ ​better​ ​story?​ ​ ​Using​ ​the​ ​CER​ ​rubric,​ ​how would​ ​you​ ​rate​ ​this​ ​evidence? I​ ​notice​ ​that​ ​the​ ​data​ ​has​ ​time,​ ​temperature​ ​and​ ​a​ ​distance​ ​factor.​ ​I would’ve​ ​liked​ ​if​ ​they​ ​had​ ​tried​ ​more​ ​times​ ​to​ ​get​ ​a​ ​better​ ​average.​ ​I would​ ​rate​ ​this​ ​evidence​ ​a​ ​3. 3.​ ​What​ ​do​ ​you​ ​notice​ ​about​ ​the​ ​reasoning?​ ​ ​How​ ​well​ ​does​ ​the reasoning​ ​connect​ ​the​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​the​ ​claim?​ ​ ​Using​ ​the​ ​CER​ ​rubric, how​ ​would​ ​you​ ​rate​ ​this​ ​reasoning? I​ ​notice​ ​that​ ​the​ ​reasoning​ ​is​ ​good​ ​but​ ​it​ ​lacks​ ​details.​ ​I​ ​would​ ​rate​ ​it​ ​a 3. ...
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