CHEM 181 – Unit 1 Topic 2: Macronutrients – Vitamins Lesson 1: Vitamins I Vitamins are nutrients needed in small amounts to prevent deficiency diseases. A balanced diet contains all the vitamins in the required amounts. 13 different types of vitamins: Fat soluble o A,D,E and K Water soluble o B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C Why is there no continuity? Because certain vitamins that we thought were vitamins were not actually vitamins, and we took them out. Vitamins and supplements are huge in business and marketing. Vitamin fortified drinks/food? There are certain producers of vitamins that are manipulating the prices (price-fixing) = law suit for 1.5 billion dollars Vitamins is not only what you buy, but most of them is added to food as supplements Vitamin C: Ascorbic acid All these vitamins have a vitamin name but also an official name (what is actually is) Vitamin B5 = pantothenic acid Vitamin B7 = biotin Vitamin B6 = pyridoxine Vitamin B1 = thiamine Vitamin B3 = niacin Vitamin B12 = cobalamin Vitamin B9 = folic acid Vitamin B2 = riboflavin History of Vitamins: History of vitamin C: Discovery voyages in 15 th -17 th century, where disease would occur = scurvy = vitamin C deficiency
Jacque Cartier = most of the crew suffered from scurvy. The natives knew the symptoms and had a treatment for it. Make a brew out of pine needles = rich source of vitamin C that can fight off scurvy Ascorbic acid is present in cabbage James Lind discovered that scurvy can be prevented with a good diet. He gave to sailors different foods to see what made a difference. Among all the different foods, there was one that was significant: lime. Two ways of preventing lime juice from oxidizing: mix with brandy or keep it in barrels and cover the top with oil Vitamin C was then discovered to be the cure for scurvy by James Lind = took 175 years History of vitamin B1: Beri-Beri: neurological disorder with limb troubles. Eventually found that we could convert brown rice into white rice. People preferred white rice. Chickens contracted it too. What did they have in common? They both switched to white rice. So there must have been something in the husk of brown rice that prevented Beri-Beri. Active ingredient was discovered to be Vitamin B1 = thiamine, but it took a long time to realize this. Christian Eikjman identified the cause of Beri-Beri as a dietary change in the consumption of white rice instead of brown rice Vitamin D:
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- Spring '11