Rationalism - Rationalism Rationalism and Empiricism, 1...

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    Rationalism  
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    Rationalism and  Empiricism, 1 Empiricism: All knowledge of the world  comes from experience Rationalism: Some knowledge of the  world is independent of experience—  that is, some knowledge is inborn  (innate) 
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    Trifling Propositions Locke: trifling propositions  are Identical propositions  (Logical truths): “A soul is a  soul”, “Lead is lead” Truths by definition:  predicate is part of subject,  e.g., “Lead is a metal”
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    1. A Semantic  Distinction “Either the predicate B belongs  to the subject A, as something  which is contained (though  covertly) in the conception A;  or the predicate B lies  completely out of the concept  A, although it stands in  connection with it. In the first  instance, I term the judgment  analytic , in the second,  synthetic .”
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    Analytic judgments Kant: predicate contained  in subject General: true or false  solely in virtue of the  meanings of its terms Example: all bachelors  are unmarried
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    Synthetic propositions Kant: predicate not  contained in subject General: truth value not  determined by meanings of  terms— depends on the  world Examples: all bachelors are  unhappy
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    2. An Epistemological Distinction Avicenna (ibn Sina, 980-1037):  “Cognition can again be analyzed into  two kinds. One is the kind that may be  known through Intellect; it is known  necessarily by reasoning through  itself. . . . The other kind of cognition is  one that is known by intuition  [experience]. Whatever is known by  Intellect . . . should be based on  something which is known prior to the  thing [that is, a priori].”
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    A Priori/A Posteriori Judgments A posteriori : dependent  on experience; can be  known only by  experience A priori : independent of  experience; can be  known by reasoning  alone
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    A Priori/A Posteriori A Posteriori : Hume,  matters of fact: dependent  on experience A Priori : Hume, relations of  ideas: can be known “by  mere operation of thought”
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PHL 301 taught by Professor Bonevac during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Rationalism - Rationalism Rationalism and Empiricism, 1...

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