Chapters 1-4 study guide.docx

Chapters 1-4 study guide.docx - *WHERE YOU FIND THINGS FOR...

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**WHERE YOU FIND THINGS FOR TISSUES AND WHAT DO THEY DO** Chapter 1 Define: Anatomy: studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another Physiology: concer ns the function of the body Explain principle of complementarity of structure and anatomy The principle of complementarity of structure and function states that function is dependent on structure , and that the form of a structure relates to its function - How a cells shape and structure relates to its function Macroscopic or Gross anatomy: study of large body structure visible to the naked eye Ex: heart, lungs, and kidneys Systemic anatomy - represent a single system of bodies ex: cardiovascular sytsem….Disease carried by blood in cardiovascular system = systemic disease Microscopic anatomy: structures that’s are too small to be seen 1. Cytology: study of cells in the body 2. Histology: study of tissues What are the levels of structural organization of the human body; define each level 1. Chemical level: atoms building blocks of matter molecules (water & proteins) organelles 2. Cellular: complimenting shapes and functions 3. Tissue: shape and muscular definition a. Muscles(provides movement), tendons(, nervous tissue(provides communication by transmitting electrical impulses), epithelium (covers body surface and lines its cavities) 4. Organ 5. Organism What are the 8 necessary life functions; explain each one 1. Maintaining boundaries: Cells of our body are surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane integumentary system (skin) 2. Movement: activities promoted by the muscular system 3. Responsiveness : ability to sense changes(serve as stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them 4. Digestion : breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood 5. Metabolism: “state of change” All chemical reactions that occur within body cells a. Regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine system glands 6. Excretion : process of removing wastes from the body 7. Reproduction : occurs at the cellular and the organismal level a. Cellular: original cell divides producing two identical daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repair
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b. Making a new person 8. Growth: increase in side of a body part or the organism as a whole List all systems of the human body—ex: cardiovascular 1. Nutrients : taken via the diet 2. Oxygen: 20% of the air we breathe is oxygen 3. Water: 60-80% of our body weight, single most abundant chemical 4. Normal body temp: if temp drops below 98.6, metabolic reactions become slower and then stop 5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure: force that air exerts on the surface of the body What is homeostatic control; what are the components of homeostatic control Homeostatic state controlled through communication between neural and endocrine pathways Define positive and negative feedback loops and provide an example of each Negative feedback mechanism Most common homeostatic control Ex: 98.6 degrees normal Fever = trying to heat up and kill bacteria
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