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Ch. 8 .docx - From lecture From textbook Clinical Ch. 8:...

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From lectureFrom textbookClinicalCh. 8: Head and NeckSkull, Bones, Muscles, Nerves, and VesselsSkullSkull is covered by skin (scalp)Bones of the SkullNeurocranium (cranium) and facial skeletonCranium consists of eight bones: frontal, parietal (paired), temporal (paired),occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoidUpper part:calvaria(cranial vault: frontal, parietal, and occipital bones)Sutures:sites of articulation between bones of the skulloSite for intramembranous bone growthoRemain unossified to allow for bone formation at edges of overlappingbone frontsNew bone cells only produce new bone in response to externalstimulioRemain patent (open) until late third decade or laterCoronal suture:junction between frontal and parietal bonesSagittal suture:between parietal bonesLambdoid suture:between parietal bones and occipital boneoThe bregma is between the lambda and coronal suturesFacial skeletonconsists of fourteen bones (paired): maxilla, nasal bones,zygomatic bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones inferior nasal conchae,mandible (unpaired), and vomer (unpaired)Ossification, Structure, and Connections of Skull BonesDevelop viaintramembranous ossificationConsist of a peripheral compact part (cortex) and a central part occupied byspongy (dipole) boneConnected by continuous joints (sutures)The frontal bone begins as 2 parts, fuses laterFontanelles:unossified areas between bones that are found during infancyand early childhoodoInclude largeranterior and posterior fontanellesand smallermastoidandsphenoidal fontanellesoOssify within 6-36 months after birthAnterior View of the SkullCan be seen: frontal bone, parietal bones (posterolaterally), and sphenoidbones on lateral sidesLower part of frontal bone formssuperciliary archfollowed bysupraorbital marginoSupraorbital foramencan be found medially on the supraorbitalmargin
Roof oforbitson both sidesoInside: frontal bone sutures with zygomatic bone laterally, sphenoidbone inferiorly, and ethmoid bone mediallyoIn the center: frontal bone articulates with nasal bones at thenasion,and theglabellais directly in the center above the nasionoAbove glabella inside the bone, frontal sinus can be seen in ananteroposterior X-ray viewBelow orbit, maxillary bones bear theinfraorbital foramenoJoin each other in the center beneath the noseMaxillary bones suture with zygomatic bones (superolaterally) and withnasal bones (superomedially)oNasal cavity forms between maxillary bonesoInside nasal cavity:Nasal septum (center)Formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid bonesuperiorly, inferiorly by vomerThree pairs of nasal conchae (laterally)Superior and medial conchae part of lateral masses of ethmoid,inferior conchae are independentMandible has a body, ramus, and angle, and bears themental foramenOrbitoFormed by junction of several bones, including frontal, zygomatic,

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Term
Fall
Professor
SAMSAM
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