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review bio - Requirments of life Metabolism describes all...

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Requirments of life: Metabolism describes all of the chemical reactions occurring in the body. Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur quickly because less energy is required.- activation energy makes it so the processes of the body are not infinitely repeated. (page 55) Sexual and asexual reproduction: Asexual: does not require genetic input from two parents and results in offspring that are genetically identical to the original parent cell. (bacteria, amoeba) Sexual: requires genetic input from two parents. Both qay require that cells make a copy of their genetic DNA organized into chromosomes that carry hundreds of genes along their length. Growth Definitions: Cell: fundamental structural unit of life on earth, separated from its environment by a membrane and often an external wall. Metabolism describes all of the chemical reactions occurring in the body. Photosynthesis: when plants use energy from sun light to produce organic molecules. They release oxygen into the atmosphere. The plant uses carbon dioxide from respiration to start this process. Human life cycle: a human body forms from the fusion of an egg cell from its mother and a sperm cell from its father, The single cell that results from this fusion will grow and divide into trillions of cells, each carrying the same information. The fertilized cell is a zygote and the gametes are egg and sperm. Operation of mitosis happens. Components common to all cells: Plasma membrane: enclose a cell, defines the outer boundary of each cell, isolates the cell’s contents from the environment, and serves as a semi permeable barrier that determines which nutrients are allowed into and out of the cell. (outer boundary of the cell membranes) Proteins in the bi layer transport substance across hydrophobic membrane, sugar chains identify the cell, phospholipids are tails toward the center. DNA: a nucleic acid that serves as the primary storage of genetic information in nearly all living organisms. It is a double-helical structure composed of sugars, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases, each strand of the helix is composed of repeating units of sugars and phosphates which makes the sugar phosphate backbone, and of nitrogenous bases. A phosphate, a sugar, and nitrogenous base comprise the structure of the nucleotide. Adenine and guanine are purines, which have a double ring structure, cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines, which have single ring structure.(atcg)
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Ribosomes : found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, they are built in the nucleus and shipped out through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm, where they are used as work benches for protein synthesis.. They can be found floating in the cytoplasm or tethered to the ER.
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