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Minh Doan Engineering antigens for in situ erythrocyte binding induces T-cell deletionStephen Konos, Iraklis C. Kourtisa, Karen Y. Danea, and Jeffrey A. HubbellProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of AmericaStephen Konos’ is the co-founder of Ankonion, which is a research lab focused on manipulating binding tolerances of immune cells to treat autoimmune diseases. Specifically, his thesis focused on developing red blood cell tolerance technology and observing the effects on the immune system. This study seeks to address how antigens can be used to suppress immune responses and induce T cell deletion in order to treat autoimmune diseases.One of the methods utilized in this study was the utilization of OVA antigens as a reference protein to induce and measure immune responses within the cell. In immunological studies, OVA is used to study antigen specific immune responses, because they are nontoxic and have work rapidly, making it the model antigen. In the study, different OVA variants were created with high binding affinities for erythrocytes to measure their binding kinetics and red blood cell clearance.