Hoffman All lectures EEMB 3 - LECTURE 1 Introduction to the Animals Sponges Lecture 1 Professor Hofmann Announcements Office hours Marine Science

Hoffman All lectures EEMB 3 - LECTURE 1 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE​ ​1 Introduction​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Animals:​ ​Sponges Lecture​ ​1 May​ ​13,​ ​2016 Professor​ ​Hofmann Announcements Office​ ​hours:​ ​Marine​ ​Science​ ​Research​ ​Bldg,​ ​Room​ ​4310 ¤​ ​Mon​ ​10am-11:30pm,​ ​Tuesday​ ​10-11am ¤​ ​Or​ ​by​ ​appointment ¤​ ​[email protected] ¤​ ​Office:​ ​893-6175 ¤​ ​Outline​ ​of​ ​lecture​ ​will​ ​be​ ​posted​ ​ASAP,​ ​usually​ ​the​ ​afternoon​ ​before​ ​class ¤​ ​Readings​ ​in​ ​Life ¤​ ​Today,​ ​Lecture​ ​1:​ ​Sponges ¤​ ​Lecture​ ​2:​ ​Cnidarians​ ​(for​ ​Monday,​ ​May​ ​16th)​ ​Marine​ ​Science​ ​Research​ ​Bldg.​ ​on Lagoon​ ​Road 2​ ​Animal​ ​Diversity ​ ​¤​ ​Why​ ​do​ ​we​ ​care? ¤​ ​ Diversity​ ​in​ ​oceans-​ ​food​ ​security​ ​ex:​ ​fish​ ​and​ ​sushi Pollination​ ​by​ ​insects​ ​ex:invertebrates​ ​mollusks​ ​can​ ​filter​ ​so​ ​much​ ​water​ ​that​ ​they​ ​contribute​ ​to clean​ ​water​ ​around​ ​world​ ​people​ ​are​ ​interested​ ​in​ ​reestablishing​ ​mussel​ ​beds​ ​that​ ​are​ ​gone, affects​ ​water​ ​quality Animal​ ​Diversity:​ ​Why​ ​do​ ​we​ ​care? ¤​ ​Diverse​ ​ecosystems​ ​are​ ​healthier ¤​ ​Diverse​ ​ecosystems​ ​recover​ ​from​ ​disturbance​ ​faster ¤​ ​Ecosystems​ ​provide​ ​us​ ​with​ ​resources -Matters​ ​because​ ​diverse​ ​ecosystems​ ​are​ ​healthier​ ​if​ ​predators​ ​are​ ​there,​ ​the​ ​ecosystem​ ​ ​tends to​ ​be​ ​more​ ​impact,​ ​diseases​ ​are​ ​lower -Great​ ​Barrier​ ​Reef​ ​:/ -better​ ​able​ ​to​ ​respond​ ​when​ ​already​ ​healthy-​ ​multi-stressor​ ​context -resources:​ ​some​ ​underappreciated Phil​ ​broid,famous​ ​oceanographer,​ ​phytoplankton-provide​ ​us​ ​with​ ​half​ ​oxygen Shifts​ ​in​ ​ocean​ ​impact​ ​us Reasons​ ​to​ ​preserve:​ ​more​ ​than​ ​aesthetic,​ ​more​ ​like​ ​self-preservation 3​ ​Road​ ​map:​ ​Lecture​ ​1 ¤​ ​Characteristics​ ​of​ ​animals ¤​ ​What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​common​ ​ancestors? ¤​ ​What​ ​traits​ ​do​ ​all​ ​animals​ ​share? ¤​ ​Our​ ​first​ ​group:​ ​Sponges *Sidebar:​ ​outlines,​ ​look​ ​at​ ​them​ ​^​ ​(roadmap)​ ​had​ ​big​ ​features What​ ​characters​ ​distinguish​ ​animals​ ​from​ ​other​ ​organisms? ¤Multicellular​ ​organisms​ ​–​ ​but​ ​incredibly​ ​diverse. Metazoans -from​ ​simple​ ​cell-​ ​sponges​ ​to​ ​more​ ​complex​ ​with​ ​tissue​ ​layers,​ ​sensory​ ​systems​ ​start​ ​to​ ​evolve, mechs​ ​that​ ​allow​ ​organisms​ ​to​ ​interface,​ ​to​ ​become​ ​a​ ​better​ ​predator​ ​ex:​ ​shark​ ​swimming​ ​eating machine 4​ ​Nutritional​ ​considerations:​ ​Heterotrophic​ ​metabolism ¤Animals​ ​must​ ​consume​ ​organic​ ​compounds. ¤Lack​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​make​ ​them​ ​from​ ​inorganic​ ​molecules. ¤Digest​ ​internally,​ ​somehow​ ​(this​ ​is​ ​also​ ​highly​ ​variable​ ​in​ ​the​ ​animal​ ​kingdom) -ecology​ ​relationships,​ ​predator-prey​ ​relationships,​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​organ​ ​systems​ ​develop​ ​around enhancing​ ​nutritional​ ​acquisition,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​times​ ​metabolic​ ​capacities​ ​start​ ​to​ ​define athleticism -portugese​ ​manowar​ ​super​ ​good​ ​predator​ ​have​ ​tentacles​ ​but​ ​not​ ​active​ ​swimmer,​ ​don’t​ ​acquire necessarily​ ​as​ ​much​ ​nutrition​ ​per​ ​unit​ ​time​ ​like​ ​a​ ​shark​ ​and​ ​sometimes​ ​that​ ​goes​ ​hand​ ​in hand-locomotion​ ​style​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​obtain​ ​nutrition​ ​starts​ ​to​ ​support​ ​the​ ​locomotory​ ​activity​ ​of​ ​animal Feeding​ ​strategies ¤Filter​ ​feeders ¤Herbivores ¤Predators ¤Parasites ¤Detritivores Mussels​ ​filter​ ​feed Or​ ​full​ ​on​ ​predation Zooplankton​ ​sometimes​ ​mage​ ​predators​ ​against​ ​other​ ​plankton 5​ ​Some​ ​sort​ ​of​ ​motion​ ​is​ ​required​ ​to​ ​get​ ​the​ ​food… ¤Motion​ ​is​ ​relative ¤​ ​Locomote​ ​to​ ​get​ ​food ¤​ ​Move​ ​environment ¤​ ​“Sit​ ​and​ ​wait” ¤Energy​ ​is​ ​expended Food​ ​acquisition​ ​vs​ ​energy​ ​expenditure Evolution​ ​of​ ​warmblooddedness​ ​couples​ ​with​ ​high​ ​activity,​ ​results​ ​in​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​energy​ ​being extended Locomotion​ ​&​ ​the​ ​need​ ​to​ ​find​ ​food​ ​has​ ​resulted​ ​in​ ​unique​ ​systems ¤​ ​Sensory​ ​systems​ ​are​ ​unique​ ​as​ ​compared​ ​to​ ​plants,​ ​for​ ​example. ¤​ ​Variety​ ​of​ ​sensory​ ​structures ¤​ ​Nervous​ ​systems​ ​to​ ​process​ ​and​ ​coordinate​ ​the​ ​sensory​ ​information​ ​and​ ​“organize”​ ​a response. ¤​ ​Behavior​ ​–​ ​in​ ​this​ ​regard,​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​much​ ​more​ ​complex​ ​than​ ​plants Mechs​ ​to​ ​make​ ​them​ ​feel​ ​current,​ ​evol​ ​of​ ​sensory​ ​system​ ​that​ ​detects​ ​touch,​ ​temperature, pressure​ ​and​ ​these​ ​relate​ ​to​ ​being​ ​better​ ​predator Brain​ ​develops Behavioral​ ​ecology​ ​see​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​all​ ​sorts​ ​of​ ​diff​ ​systems Pack​ ​hunting​ ​behavior​ ​in​ ​wolves Group​ ​behaviors​ ​that​ ​facilitate​ ​energy​ ​acquisition See​ ​strong​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​sensory​ ​capacity​ ​and​ ​that​ ​will​ ​be​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​major​ ​characteristics 6​ ​Internal​ ​Digestion Systems​ ​generally​ ​internal,​ ​but​ ​sometimes​ ​exception,​ ​pattern With​ ​all​ ​this​ ​variety,​ ​how​ ​do​ ​biologists​ ​describe​ ​the​ ​evolutionary​ ​relationships​ ​among​ ​the animals? Let’s​ ​look​ ​at​ ​what​ ​ALL​ ​animals​ ​share First​ ​a​ ​common​ ​ancestor… Trends:​ ​multicellularity,​ ​enhancement​ ​of​ ​nervous​ ​system​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​complex​ ​behaviors,​ ​internal digestion,​ ​locomotion,​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​body​ ​temperature​ ​regulation​ ​that​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​different​ ​styles​ ​of locomotions,​ ​that​ ​circle​ ​back​ ​to​ ​being​ ​a​ ​better​ ​predator​ ​ecologically -what​ ​would​ ​all​ ​zoologist​ ​agree​ ​upon? 7​ ​Probably​ ​a​ ​colonial​ ​protist… ¤​ ​The​ ​metazoan​ ​lineage​ ​is​ ​monophyletic. Choanoflagellida​ ​–​ ​links​ ​Protists​ ​and​ ​Animals? How?​ ​They​ ​are​ ​colonial​ ​and​ ​thought​ ​to​ ​be​ ​related​ ​to​ ​sponges. -like​ ​protists​ ​that​ ​had​ ​multiple​ ​flagellated​ ​cells​ ​at​ ​the​ ​top​ ​that​ ​were​ ​feeding​ ​cells​ ​and​ ​in​ ​some​ ​sort of​ ​way​ ​the​ ​cells​ ​started​ ​to​ ​collaborate​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​feeding​ ​together​ ​and​ ​being​ ​a​ ​structural​ ​entity together,​ ​possibly​ ​like​ ​being​ ​able​ ​to​ ​be​ ​lifted​ ​off​ ​the​ ​benthos​ ​to​ ​be​ ​up​ ​on​ ​water​ ​current​ ​to​ ​get food,​ ​-so​ ​there​ ​could​ ​be​ ​ecological​ ​advantages​ ​to​ ​being​ ​a​ ​fixed​ ​organism​ ​to​ ​get​ ​food​ ​and​ ​not being​ ​swept​ ​up​ ​by​ ​water​ ​currents -in​ ​some​ ​sort​ ​of​ ​colonial​ ​organism​ ​that​ ​might​ ​have​ ​looked​ ​like​ ​a​ ​choanoflagellida,​ ​not​ ​clear Animals​ ​are​ ​descended​ ​from​ ​a​ ​single​ ​ancestral​ ​line Common​ ​ancestor Animals​ ​are​ ​monophyletic-descended​ ​from​ ​common​ ​ancestor 8​ ​Monophyly​ ​supported​ ​by: ¤​ ​Sequence​ ​similarities​ ​in​ ​5S​ ​and​ ​18S​ ​ribosomal​ ​RNAs ¤​ ​Sharing​ ​similarities​ ​in​ ​Hox​ ​genes ¤​ ​A​ ​series​ ​of​ ​special​ ​cell-cell​ ​interactions ¤​ ​A​ ​common​ ​set​ ​of​ ​extracellular​ ​matrix​ ​molecules​ ​such​ ​as​ ​collagen Strongly​ ​unify​ ​the​ ​metazoan​ ​animals​ ​as​ ​monophyletic Hox​ ​genes​ ​involved​ ​with​ ​development Charatin​ ​and​ ​collagen These​ ​are​ ​traits​ ​that​ ​unify​ ​all​ ​animals *LIFE​ ​9e,​ ​Figure​ ​31.1 Tree 9​ ​Phylum​ ​Porifera:​ ​The​ ​Sponges “Loosely​ ​Organized​ ​Animals” Lack​ ​definite​ ​tissues More​ ​loose​ ​association​ ​of​ ​cells *sidebar:​ ​so​ ​much​ ​to​ ​talk​ ​about,​ ​but​ ​these​ ​are​ ​the​ ​unique​ ​features Sponges​ ​–​ ​Phylum​ ​Porifera ¤​ ​What​ ​I​ ​might​ ​cite​ ​about​ ​a​ ​given​ ​group: ¤​ ​Unique​ ​features: ¤​ ​Unique​ ​feeding​ ​system ¤​ ​Cells​ ​types​ ​are​ ​key​ ​feature Feeding​ ​system​ ​not​ ​gonna​ ​see​ ​again Collective​ ​activity​ ​of​ ​a​ ​bunch​ ​of​ ​different​ ​cell​ ​types​ ​that​ ​do​ ​a​ ​part​ ​job​ ​in​ ​that​ ​animal Make​ ​a​ ​table?? 10​ ​Sidebar:​ ​What​ ​trends​ ​will​ ​we​ ​consider? ¤​ ​Multicellularity ¤​ ​Cell​ ​differentiation ¤​ ​Cell​ ​specialization ¤​ ​“division​ ​of​ ​labor” ¤​ ​Increasing​ ​complexity ¤​ ​Organized​ ​tissues ¤​ ​Behavior ¤​ ​Feeding​ ​strategies ¤​ ​Evolution​ ​of​ ​body​ ​plan ¤​ ​“Cephalization” ¤​ ​Skeletons​ ​of​ ​varying​ ​complexity​ ​and​ ​nature Differentiation:​ ​true​ ​endoderm,​ ​cool​ ​cell​ ​type​ ​that​ ​defines​ ​it Always​ ​something​ ​about​ ​top​ ​4​ ​features Body:​ ​finding​ ​mates​ ​etc-​ ​really​ ​talk​ ​about​ ​trends,​ ​evolution​ ​of​ ​endoskeleton We​ ​are​ ​wildly​ ​cephalized!!!​ ​As​ ​a​ ​mammal,​ ​all​ ​sensory​ ​stuff​ ​in​ ​one​ ​place Talk​ ​about​ ​role​ ​of​ ​biodiversity​ ​within​ ​the​ ​animal​ ​lineage​ ​and​ ​how​ ​it​ ​is​ ​important​ ​to​ ​us​ ​ecologically Phylum​ ​Porifera ¤​ ​“Pore​ ​bearer” ¤​ ​8,000​ ​described​ ​species,​ ​estimate​ ​as​ ​many​ ​as​ ​15,000​ ​total ¤​ ​Three​ ​types: ¤​ ​Desmosponges ¤ ​Glass​ ​sponges ¤​ ​Calcareous​ ​sponges ¤​ ​Multicellular ¤​ ​But​ ​lack​ ​tissue-level​ ​organization​ ​typical​ ​of​ ​other​ ​metazoans ¤​ ​Cells​ ​are​ ​totipotent​ ​(not​ ​differentiated​ ​and​ ​can​ ​alter​ ​form​ ​and​ ​function) ¤​ ​Lack​ ​symmetry​ ​(asymmetrical) Challenge​ ​because​ ​they​ ​all​ ​look​ ​the​ ​same​ ​and​ ​it’s​ ​hard​ ​to​ ​classify​ ​them​ ​just​ ​by​ ​looking Eventually​ ​we​ ​see​ ​that​ ​they​ ​become​ ​important​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​ecosystem​ ​services -Three​ ​groups​ ​based​ ​on​ ​what​ ​spicules​ ​are​ ​made​ ​of -no​ ​tissue​ ​layers,​ ​no​ ​organs,​ ​really​ ​assemblage​ ​of​ ​cells,​ ​totipotent​ ​(can​ ​switch​ ​roles), -sponges​ ​into​ ​blenders​ ​and​ ​they​ ​can​ ​come​ ​back​ ​together!​ ​Not​ ​exactly​ ​how​ ​they​ ​were,​ ​but​ ​cells had​ ​capacity​ ​to​ ​reorganize​ ​and​ ​reform​ ​their​ ​sponge​ ​body -really​ ​lack​ ​symmetry 11​ ​*LIFE​ ​9e,​ ​Figure​ ​31.7​ ​(part​ ​1) Even​ ​tho​ ​they​ ​lack​ ​symmetry,​ ​they​ ​do​ ​have​ ​a​ ​unified​ ​body​ ​plan​ ​of​ ​how​ ​these​ ​organisms​ ​feed​ ​as a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​cells​ ​in​ ​a​ ​collective -water​ ​moving​ ​system​ ​so​ ​that​ ​sponges​ ​can​ ​filter​ ​feed​ ​almost​ ​as​ ​a​ ​unit​ ​moving​ ​water​ ​pass​ ​its body​ ​in​ ​a​ ​really​ ​functional​ ​way -choanocytes****** -flagellum​ ​face​ ​the​ ​internal​ ​core​ ​of​ ​the​ ​sponge​ ​waving,​ ​create​ ​a​ ​current,​ ​pull​ ​water​ ​and​ ​food particles​ ​through​ ​pore​ ​and​ ​that​ ​mass​ ​flow​ ​of​ ​water​ ​exits​ ​through​ ​that​ ​top​ ​spout​ ​(osculum)​ ​and this​ ​unit​ ​can​ ​be​ ​repeated​ ​in​ ​all​ ​sorts​ ​of​ ​ways​ ​in​ ​any​ ​different​ ​sponge​ ​and​ ​this​ ​is​ ​how​ ​they​ ​do​ ​it -it’s​ ​the​ ​choanocytes​ ​that​ ​actively​ ​create​ ​that​ ​current Feeding​ ​in​ ​sponges -choanocytes​ ​are​ ​also​ ​feeding​ ​cells -so​ ​they​ ​have​ ​a​ ​collar​ ​that's​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​sticky​ ​and​ ​mucusy​ ​and​ ​food​ ​particles​ ​get​ ​stuck​ ​in​ ​that​ ​and then​ ​there's​ ​this​ ​an​ ​endocytosis​ ​process​ ​where​ ​the​ ​nutrients​ ​are​ ​pulled​ ​into​ ​the​ ​cell​ ​body​ ​and they​ ​have​ ​this​ ​incredibly​ ​important​ ​role​ ​in​ ​sponges​ ​as​ ​not​ ​only​ ​creating​ ​current​ ​but​ ​also​ ​being feeding​ ​cell​ ​so​ ​as​ ​those​ ​food​ ​particles​ ​go​ ​through​ ​the​ ​pore,​ ​they're​ ​catching​ ​them -body​ ​walls​ ​also​ ​collaborate 12​ ​No​ ​true​ ​skeleton:​ ​Keeping​ ​the​ ​goo​ ​together ¤​ ​Spicules​ ​–​ ​supporting​ ​spines ¤​ ​Not​ ​really​ ​a​ ​skeleton ¤​ ​Also​ ​can​ ​be​ ​some​ ​fibers​ ​as​ ​well ¤​ ​Spicules​ ​made​ ​of​ ​various​ ​materials ¤​ ​Calcium​ ​carbonate​ ​and​ ​silica ¤​ ​Others​ ​are​ ​made​ ​of​ ​an​ ​organic​ ​substance​ ​called​ ​spongin​ ​(proteinaceous) One​ ​of​ ​them​ ​is​ ​skeletal,​ ​but​ ​not​ ​true​ ​skeletons -sort​ ​of​ ​crusty -structure​ ​created​ ​by​ ​spicules -little​ ​jacks -embedded​ ​in​ ​organic​ ​matrix​ ​of​ ​sponge​ ​wall-rigidity -spongeologist-people​ ​who​ ​are​ ​really​ ​good​ ​at​ ​sponge​ ​taxonomy-can​ ​look​ ​at​ ​SEM,​ ​spicules​ ​and can​ ​identify​ ​them -other​ ​ways​ ​that​ ​are​ ​molecular​ ​to​ ​identify -keeping​ ​sponge​ ​wall​ ​intact​ ​involves​ ​some​ ​structural​ ​elements​ ​created​ ​by​ ​spicules​ ​so​ ​that spicules​ ​are​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​embedded​ ​in​ ​sponge​ ​wall -there​ ​are​ ​other​ ​cell​ ​types​ ​that​ ​help​ ​create​ ​the​ ​collaborative​ ​ ​feeding​ ​structure​ ​that​ ​is​ ​the​ ​sponge Feeding​ ​in​ ​sponges 13​ ​Cell​ ​diversity​ ​in​ ​sponges ¤​ ​Numerous​ ​cell​ ​types,​ ​plus​ ​spicules ¤​ ​Four​ ​cell​ ​types Function ¤​ ​Chaonocyte Feeding,​ ​creates​ ​current ¤​ ​Amebocyte Contains​ ​enzymes-​embedded​ ​in​ ​the​ ​body​ ​wall​ ​of​ ​sponge​ ​and takes​ ​hand​ ​offs​ ​of​ ​food​ ​packets​ ​from​ ​choanocytes,​ ​breaks​ ​down​ ​nutrients,​ ​and​ ​then​ ​distributes that​ ​to​ ​other​ ​cells ¤​ ​Porocyte Line​ ​pores-creates​ ​the​ ​pore ¤​ ​Sclerocyte Synthesize​ ​spicules-​cell​ ​type​ ​that​ ​specializes​ ​in​ ​synthesizing​ ​the structural​ ​unit​ ​of​ ​the​ ​spicules -+​ ​spicules -sponge​ ​has​ ​5​ ​different​ ​elements What​ ​about​ ​diversity​ ​and​ ​ecology? ¤​ ​Incredibly​ ​diverse​ ​in​ ​color​ ​and​ ​shape ¤​ ​About​ ​8,000+​ ​species​ ​worldwide ¤​ ​Predominantly​ ​marine, ¤​ ​Except​ ​some​ ​freshwater,​ ​Spongillidae ¤​ ​Found​ ​at​ ​all​ ​latitudes​ ​and​ ​in​ ​all​ ​marine​ ​environments​ ​from​ ​the​ ​deep-sea​ ​to​ ​the​ ​intertidal zone ¤​ ​Body​ ​shape​ ​tends​ ​to​ ​correlate​ ​to​ ​habitat​ ​Tropical​ ​sponges Group​ ​that​ ​are​ ​dominantly​ ​marine,​ ​not​ ​exclusive,​ ​very​ ​rare​ ​freshwater​ ​sponges​ ​in​ ​number -globally​ ​they​ ​are​ ​found​ ​from​ ​intertidal​ ​to​ ​inner​ ​sea,​ ​very​ ​much​ ​global​ ​marine​ ​species,​ ​not eliminated​ ​from​ ​any​ ​environ -environmental​ ​tolerances​ ​across​ ​whole​ ​group -body​ ​shape​ ​tends​ ​to​ ​correlate​ ​to​ ​habitat -form​ ​changes​ ​based​ ​upon​ ​how​ ​much​ ​current​ ​or​ ​how​ ​much​ ​pressure​ ​they​ ​get​ ​from​ ​water​ ​flow 14​ ​Sponges​ ​vary​ ​by​ ​habitat Deep​ ​sea​ ​glass​ ​sponge-​incredibly​ ​delicate​ ​glass​ ​sponges,​ ​collect​ ​by​ ​auvs​ ​or​ ​trauls.​ ​First samples​ ​were​ ​smashed​ ​destroyed​ ​and​ ​in​ ​pieces;​ ​crazy​ ​delicate; -in​ ​some​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​and​ ​also​ ​in​ ​antarctic​ ​nearshore​ ​waters,​ ​not​ ​crazy​ ​flow,​ ​sponges​ ​can get​ ​really​ ​tall!​ ​(human​ ​sized)​ ​not​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​pressure​ ​on​ ​them​ ​as​ ​organism Red​ ​barrel​ ​sponge Body​ ​shape​ ​correlates​ ​to​ ​pattern​ ​of​ ​water​ ​movement Intertidal​ ​sponges:​ ​flat​ ​to​ ​withstand​ ​wave​ ​forces Rocky​ ​intertidal,​ ​lots​ ​of​ pressure,​ ​we​ ​still​ ​have​ ​sponges,​ ​very​ ​diverse,​ ​but​ ​more​ ​encrusting, looking​ ​like​ ​lichens,​ ​but​ ​encrusting​ ​the​ ​rocks,​ ​that​ ​are​ ​much​ ​more​ ​flattened​ ​out​ ​with​ ​the​ ​waves 15​ ​Carnivorous​ ​sponges ¤​ ​New​ ​species​ ​found​ ​in​ ​Monterey​ ​Bay​ ​in​ ​2014​ ​¤ Exception​ ​to​ ​filter-feeding Seem​ ​to​ ​be​ ​capturing​ ​prey​ ​and​ ​devouring​ ​it!​ ​carnivorous Autonomous​ ​auvs​ ​with​ ​cameras Using​ ​some​ ​structures​ ​to​ ​capture​ ​food​ ​but​ ​the​ ​probably​ ​digesting​ ​it​ ​in​ ​the​ ​same​ ​way​ ​they​ ​always did Biodiversity Important​ ​source​ ​of​ ​new​ ​drugs ¤Pharmaceuticals​ ​from​ ​marine​ ​invertebrates​ ​–​ ​important​ ​argument​ ​for​ ​conservation​ ​of the​ ​worlds​ ​oceans ¤Marine​ ​Bioprospecting -on​ ​the​ ​face​ ​of​ ​it​ ​are​ ​very​ ​simple,​ ​not​ ​very​ ​charismatic,​ ​can​ ​be​ ​picked​ ​from​ ​a​ ​lineup,​ ​important fisheries-greece,​ ​florida,​ ​to​ ​collect​ ​them​ ​and​ ​sell​ ​as​ ​household​ ​products -they​ ​are​ ​now​ ​the​ ​center​ ​of​ ​what​ ​arguably​ ​is​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​coolest​ ​things​ ​going​ ​on​ ​right​ ​now That​ ​involves​ ​biomaterials​ ​and​ ​drug​ ​discovery​ ​“marine​ ​bio-prospecting” -sponges​ ​are​ ​like​ ​plants​ ​in​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​ways Stationary,​ ​sessile-subject​ ​to​ ​predation-have​ ​evolved​ ​by​ ​making​ ​nasty​ ​toxic​ ​stuff​ ​in​ ​their​ ​cells​ ​in some​ ​organisms​ ​to​ ​prevent​ ​predation -knew​ ​it​ ​was​ ​going​ ​on​ ​by​ ​studying​ ​the​ ​ecology​ ​of​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​area​ ​and​ ​realizing​ ​that​ ​these​ ​things should​ ​be​ ​easy​ ​prey​ ​but​ ​not​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​organisms​ ​predate​ ​on​ ​them​ ​and​ ​if​ ​they​ ​do​ ​there's​ ​a​ ​pretty special​ ​relationship​ ​of​ ​an​ ​organism​ ​that​ ​is​ ​able​ ​to​ ​detoxify​ ​whatever's​ ​in​ ​the​ ​sponge,​ ​so​ ​people started​ ​to​ ​extract​ ​these​ ​chemicals​ ​form​ ​sponges​ ​and​ ​noticed​ ​they​ ​had​ ​really​ ​strong​ ​properties and​ ​might​ ​be​ ​anticancer​ ​drugs!!!,​ ​anti​ ​cell​ ​division​ ​properties -scripps​ ​has​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world’s​ ​best​ ​marine​ ​pharmaceutical​ ​groups -you​ ​get​ ​to​ ​dive​ ​and​ ​look​ ​for​ ​them,​ ​new​ ​sponge​ ​types -you​ ​come​ ​back​ ​and​ ​become​ ​laboratory​ ​scientist -if​ ​these​ ​thing​ ​do​ ​have​ ​drugs​ ​in​ ​them​ ​that​ ​are​ ​useful,​ ​you​ ​become​ ​a​ ​conservation​ ​biologist​ ​as well,​ ​arguing​ ​that​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reasons​ ​we​ ​should​ ​conserve​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world,​ ​is​ ​bcs​ ​the biodiversity​ ​there​ ​holds​ ​important​ ​ ​drugs -marine​ ​bioprospecting-sponges-important 16​ ​Natural​ ​Products​ ​from​ ​sponges ¤​ ​Halichondria​ ​okadai ¤​ ​Halichondrin​ ​B ¤​ ​Anti-melanoma​ ​and​ ​leukemia ¤​ ​In​ ​clinical​ ​trials -first​ ​ones​ ​that​ ​got​ ​press -pacific​ ​intertidal​ ​sponge -encrusting -chemical​ ​in​ ​it​ ​H​ ​B -about​ ​10​ ​years​ ​to​ ​get​ ​something​ ​from​ ​one​ ​of​ ​these​ ​drug​ ​trials​ ​into​ ​chemical​ ​usage -super​ ​antimelanoma​ ​and​ ​antileukemia​ ​properties​ ​and​ ​is​ ​now​ ​in​ ​clinical​ ​trials -but...where​ ​are​ ​we​ ​gonna​ ​get​ ​enough​ ​of​ ​these​ ​sponges -sponge​ ​farms? Sea​ ​sponges​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Irish​ ​Sea ¤​ ​Sponges​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Irish​ ​Sea,​ ​500​ ​species ¤​ ​Anti-cancer​ ​natural​ ​products,​ ​possibly​ ​even​ ​active​ ​against​ ​MRSA. ¤​ ​Discodermia Dr​ ​Grace​ ​McCormack,​ ​zoologist​ ​at​ ​NUI​ ​Galway,​ ​with​ ​some​ ​marine​ ​sponges​ ​© Independent.ie -irish​ ​sea​ ​sponge -had​ ​amazing​ ​powerful​ ​anti-cancer​ ​and​ ​anti-mrsa​ ​properties -discodermia​ ​common​ ​probably​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​grow,​ ​but​ ​we​ ​have​ ​huge​ ​problem​ ​with​ ​multidrug resistance​ ​and​ ​staff​ ​worry​ ​restrain​ ​and​ ​here​ ​is​ ​a​ ​product​ ​that​ ​might​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​be​ ​used​ ​for patients​ ​that​ ​are​ ​infected​ ​with​ ​this​ ​strain​ ​of​ ​bacteria 17​ ​Many​ ​from​ ​Coral​ ​Reef​ ​Environments ¤​ ​Highlights​ ​of​ ​marine​ ​invertebrate-derived​ ​biosynthetic​ ​products:​ ​their​ ​biomedical potential​ ​and​ ​possible​ ​production​ ​by​ ​microbial​ ​associants. ¤​ ​Bioorg​ ​Med​ ​Chem.​ ​2011​ ​Nov​ ​15;19(22):6658-74.​ ​doi:​ ​10.1016/j.bmc.2011.07.017. ¤​ ​Papua​ ​New​ ​Guinea​ ​–​ ​underexplored​ ​and​ ​rich​ ​in​ ​diversity -realization​ ​that​ ​coral​ ​reefs​ ​in​ ​all​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​hold​ ​all​ ​these​ ​great​ ​drugs​ ​has​ ​really​ ​been highlighted​ ​in​ ​the​ ​literature​ ​where​ ​people​ ​who​ ​go​ ​on​ ​these​ ​really​ ​great​ ​options​ ​for​ ​new​ ​organism dn​ ​drugs -papua​ ​under​ ​explored​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​biodiversity -highlights​ ​products​ ​get​ ​from​ ​particular​ ​reef​ ​or​ ​area NZ​ ​sponge​ ​–​ ​vs.​ ​lung​ ​cancer ¤​ ​Found​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Marlborough​ ​region’s​ ​Pelorus​ ​Sound ¤​ ​the​ ​chemical​ ​was​ ​named​ ​"peloruside". ¤​ ​"It's​ ​pure​ ​New​ ​Zealand.​ ​Nobody's​ ​ever​ ​discovered​ ​it​ ​anywhere​ ​else." Local​ ​scientist​ ​started​ ​working​ ​on​ ​local​ ​sponges​ ​and​ ​sure​ ​enough​ ​it​ ​had​ ​a​ ​compound​ ​that​ ​was effective​ ​against​ ​lung​ ​cancer​ ​tumors -pure​ ​NZ,​ ​not​ ​discovered​ ​anywhere​ ​else -these​ ​explorations​ ​going​ ​on​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world,​ ​highlights​ ​why​ ​protecting​ ​biodiversity​ ​and​ ​water quality​ ​that​ ​we​ ​don't​ ​dump​ ​sewage​ ​into​ ​coastal​ ​region-because​ ​sponge​ ​in​ ​a​ ​healthy​ ​coastal system​ ​has​ ​huge​ ​value 18​ ​Sponge​ ​barcoding​ ​effort:​ ​Supports​ ​Biomaterials​ ​&​ ​Ecology ¤​ ​Difficult​ ​to​ ​identify​ ​in​ ​the​ ​field​ ​via​ ​morphology ¤​ ​DNA​ ​Bar-coding ¤​ ​Standard​ ​barcoding​ ​fragment​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Barcoding​ ​of​ ​Life​ ​initiative​ ​is​ ​a​ ​~​ ​640​ ​bp​ ​long fragment​ ​located​ ​at​ ​the​ ​5'​ ​site​ ​of​ ​the​ ​mitochondrial​ ​cytochrome​ ​oxidase​ ​subunit​ ​1​ ​(CO1). ¤​ ​http://​ ​ ​ ​ni-muenchen.de/SBP/ -every​ ​species​ ​had​ ​a​ ​barcode​ ​specific​ ​t...
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