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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Classes of Nutrients-Carbohydrates-sugars, starch (vegetables like corn grain wheat), milk, fruit, veggies-they provide us with energy-Proteins-give us muscles-meat, poultry, fish, some in grains-Fat-use for energy too, fat is a storage form of energy in our bodies-fats in our bodies come from oils and animal fat and nuts and seeds-Vitamins- all diff. foods contain vitamins. Needed for chemical reactions in the body-Minerals-sodium, potassium….etc. fluid balance, helps contract muscles and nerves-water-need a constant supply. Most foods are made mostly of water**…2/3 body is water. Organic Nutrients-organic-contain carbon-large complex molecules-carb.-protein-fat-vitamins Inorganic Nutrients-inorganic-contains no carbon (NaCl)-simple in structure-ex: minerals like sodium potassium, magnesium All nutrients are essential and must be obtained through the diet. These yield energy when broken down in the body: carb., protein, fat Energy is measured in kCals Def of kilocalorie: energy in form of heat, needed to raise 1kg of water 1 degree -kilocalorie yield per 1 g *alcohol=7kcal/g..not a nutrient tho *Fat= 9kcal/g *Carb=4kcal/g *Protein=4kcal/g [*944 porsche] Know percentage calculations: 1 cup of whole milk contains: 150 kilocalories (kcal) 12 grams of carbs 8 grams of protein 8 grams of fat What is the % of kcal from fat in whole milk?? Fat kcal/serving 8gram fat* 9 kcal/gram =72 cal (9 taken from 9,4,4 porsche) Total kcal/serving : 150kcal % kcal from fat 72 fat kcal/ 150 total kcal * 100 =48% Know how to convert kCals to g’s and vice versa: Ex: a meal consists of 40 g of carbs, 20 g of protein, & 15 g of fat. How many kCals are in the meal? How? Multiply the # of g of carbs, proteins, and fat by 9,4,4 porsche. Then add results together. So >> 40 g carbs X 4 kcal/g = 160 kcal 20 g protein X 4 kcal/g = 80 kcal 15 g fat X 9 kcal/g = 135 kcal Total sum: 375 kcals Dietary Reference Intakes • Estimated Average Requirement: measurement of 50% of a population for daily requirement for nutrient X -- use for RDA and AI • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): nutrients set at 98% of population thus covering majority; energy set at 50%, otherwise 98% would be too obese -- adequate, guide for diet planning • Adequate intake (AI): similar to RDA but is a range….not enough sci. evidence to establish • Tolerable upper limit: highest level of nutrient you can eat w/o being toxic. not for every nutrient, just some Nutrition Assessment Individual >> historical info like medical history & family background Population >> every 5 yrs…food consumption survey (trends in eating patterns) & nutritional status survey ABCD’s A: anthropometrics: height and weight B: biochemical: blood C: physical exam…fat, blood pressure, etc....
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- Spring '08