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Test 3 Study Guide (1).pdf - Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition...

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Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Nutrition – Food being taken in, taken apart, and taken up. Diet Must satisfy three needs: 1. Chemical energy for cellular processes – Chemicals for ATP synthesis. (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) 2. Organic building blocks for macromolecules – Source of organic carbon (sugar) and nitrogen (proteins) 3. Essential nutrients – materials required by animals that cannot be synthesized (ascorbic acid – vitamin C) Essential Nutrients - Essential Amino Acids Animals need 20 amino acids to make proteins. About half can be synthesized using sulfur and oxygen. The other 20 must be obtained from food in preassembled form and are essential amino acids . ! Humans require 8 of these amino acids ! Meat, eggs, and cheese provide these acids and are “complete” proteins. Plant proteins are “incomplete” ! Some animals have adaptations when they demand lots of protein. (Penguins use muscular protein for feathers after molting) - Essential Fatty Acids Essential fatty acids , that animals cannot make themselves, contain one or more double bonds and are thus unsaturated. Because they are found in so many of the foods we eat (seeds, nuts, grains) deficiencies are rare - Vitamins Vitamins organic molecules that have diverse functions and are required in the diet in very small amounts. 13 have been identified for humans and the required amount ranges from about 0.01 to 100 mg per day. Classified as water soluble (B-vitamins or vitamin-c) or fat soluble (Vitamin A and vitamin K) Overconsumption of water-soluble vitamins are disposed of in urine but excess fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in fat deposits and be toxic. - Minerals Minerals are inorganic nutrients like iron and sulfur that are usually required in small amounts. Functions like splitting ATP, functioning of nerves, maintaining a mitotic balance, and regulating metabolism Ingesting large amounts of some minerals can impair health. Excess salt = high blood pressure.
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Dietary Deficiencies - Malnutrition – lacks one or more essential nutrients and supplies less chemical energy than the body requires - Insufficient intake of essential nutrients can cause deformity, disease, and death. Ex. cows get brittle bones when they eat grass that lacks phosphorous. Spiders can switch prey to compensate when they detect a nutritional imbalance - In humans protein deficiency is most common when not all essential amino acids are provided. Ex. children with a protein deficiency after switching off breast milk have impaired development. Populations on rice diets have a vitamin A deficiency leading to blindness or death. “golden rice” with beta-carotene counters this. - Undernutrition – a diet that does not supply enough chemical energy o The body first uses up stored carbohydrates and fat and breaks down its own proteins (muscles) for food.
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