Chapter 12 Central Nervous system.docx

Chapter 12 Central Nervous system.docx - Chapter 12 Central...

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Chapter 12 Central Nervous system Outline of Chapter> The Brain 12.1 How does embryonic development explain adult brain structure? Folding during development determines the complex structure of the adult brain Describe how space constraints affect brain development. Name the major regions of the adult brain. Name and locate the ventricles of the brain. 12.2 Cerebral hemispheres The cerebral hemispheres consist of cortex, white matter, and the basal nuclei List the major lobes, fissures, and functional areas of the cerebral cortex. Explain lateralization of cortical function. Differentiate among commissures, association fibers, and projection fibers. Describe the general function of the basal nuclei (basal ganglia). 12.3 Diencephalon The diencephalon includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus Describe the location of the diencephalon, and name its subdivisions and functions. 12.4 Brain stem The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Identify the three major regions of the brain stem, and note the functions of each area. 12.5 Cerebellum The cerebellum adjusts motor output, ensuring coordination and balance Describe the structure and function of the cerebellum. 12.6 Functional brain systems Functional brain systems span multiple brain structures Locate the limbic system and the reticular formation, and explain the role of each functional system. 12.7 Higher mental functions The interconnected structures of the brain allow higher mental functions Identify the brain areas involved in language and memory. Identify factors affecting the formation of long-term memories. Define EEG and distinguish between alpha, beta, theta, and delta brain waves. Describe consciousness clinically. Compare and contrast the events and importance of slow-wave and REM sleep. 12.8 How is the brain protected?
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The brain is protected by bone, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood–brain barrier Describe how meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood–brain barrier protect the CNS. Explain how cerebrospinal fluid is formed and describe its circulatory pathway. 12.9 What happens when things go wrong? Brain injuries and disorders have devastating consequences Describe the cause (if known) and major signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular accidents, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. List and explain several techniques used to diagnose brain disorders. Review the following topics: 12.1 Folding during development determines the complex structure of the adult brain (pp. 431–435; Figs. 12.1–12.4; Table 12.1) A. The brain and spinal cord begin as the neural tube, which rapidly differentiates into the CNS. (p. 431) B. The neural tube develops constrictions that divide the three primary brain vesicles: the prosencephalon (forebrain), which further divides into the telencephalon, and diencephalon; the mesencephalon (midbrain); and rhombencephalon (hindbrain), which gives rise to the metenecephalon and myelencephalon. (p. 431; Fig. 12.1) C.
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