Exam IV Book Notes - Ch. 4: Developing through the Life...

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Ch. 4: Developing through the Life Span07/11/2007 17:46:00 Ch. 4 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget became intrigued by children’s wrong answers to some questions. He saw intelligence at work. The errors made by children of a given age, he noted, were often strikingly similar Children reason differently Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. A child’s mind develops through a series of stages. The maturing brain builds schemas, concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. How we use and adjust our schemas o We assimilate new experiences—we interpret them in terms of our current understandings {schemas} Having a simple schema for dog, a toddler may call all four-legged animals doggies . o We accommodate , or adjust, our schemas to fit the particulars of new experiences. The child soon learns that the original doggie schema is too broad Sensorimotor Stage From birth to nearly age 2, babies take in the world through their sensory and motor interactions with objects—through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. “out of sight out of mind” o see a toy, toy covered, toy disappears Young infants lack object permanence —the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
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o Unfolds gradually By 8 months, infants momentarily look for it. Within another month or two, the infant will look for it even after being restrained for several seconds Preoperational Stage Piaget believed that until about age 6 or 7, children are in a preoperational stage —too young to perform mental operations. o Milk seems “too much” in tall glass o Right amount in wide glass They lack the concept of conservation —the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape. Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt Egocentrism Piaget contended that preschool children are egocentric : They have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view. Three-year-old Gray makes himself “invisible” by putting his hands over his eyes, assuming that if he can’t see someone, they can’t see him. Theory of Mind People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behavior these might predict As their ability to take another’s perspective develops, children seek to understand what made a playmate angry. Concrete Operational Stage By about 6 or 7 years of age, said Piaget, children enter the concrete operational stage. They begin to grasp conservation. Understanding that change in form does not mean change in quantity Piaget believed that during the concrete operational stage, children fully gain the mental ability to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation
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Formal Operational Stage By age 12, our reasoning expands from the purely concrete to encompass abstract thinking
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Exam IV Book Notes - Ch. 4: Developing through the Life...

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