psychological disorders

psychological disorders - Psychological Disorders...

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Psychological Disorders Psychological disorder: a constellation of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that create distress, disability/ dysfunction, or danger 1. difficulties with defining disorders a. major cultural differences in prevalence rates and how symptoms are expressed b. changes over time in what is defined as a disorder c. normal behaviors differ by reference group and situation d. some definitions are specific to a context a. e.g. insanity: a legal, not a 1
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psychological definition 2. many different theoretical approaches toe explaining psychological disorders a. most widely used: diathesis-stress model i. diathesis: predisposition to a state or condition a. genes b. abnormalities of brain structure or function c. neurotransmitter imbalances ii. stressors: a. trauma, abuse, neglect b. dysfunctional family patterns c. current relationship problems d. loss e. physical stressors f. cultural stressors iii. high levels of diathesis make people 2
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more vulnerable to stressors which that trigger a disorder Classifying Abnormal Behaviors DSM-IV : Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of mental Disorder : diagnosis based on 5 axes along which a patient is rated 1. Axis I: describes clinical syndromes, such as depression or schizophrenia i. disorders that reflect the person’s current state 2. Axis II: describes personality disorders and mental retardation ii. disorders that are chronic 3. Axis III: related physical disorders 4. Axis IV: rated severity of current life stresses 3
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5. Axis V: rating of the patient’s highest level of adaptive functioning in the past year 4
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Childhood/Adolescent Disorders 1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) a. characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity inappropriate for the child’s age b. may exhibit symptoms by 4 c. prevalence rate: 5% of school age kids i. 9 times more prevalent in males d. runs in families i. families have higher levels of alcoholism and personality disorders, especially in the fathers e. at risk for psychiatric and social problems in adolescence and adulthood (especially antisocial behavior & substance 5
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abuse) 6
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2. Conduct Disorder a. persistent violation of societal norms and the rights of others b. symptoms include: physical aggression toward people or animals, chronic fighting, vandalism, persistent lying and stealing c. kids are obstinate, resent taking direction, lack empathy and compassion, seldom express remorse 7
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d. prevalence rates: i. 6-16% in boys ii. 2-9% of girls e. less reactive autonomic nervous systems i. unresponsive to conditioning, because less responsive to reward and especially punishment ii. lack anxiety as a motivator 8
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1. the continued use of a substance that negatively affects psychological and social functioning 2. most common is alcoholism i. 13 million alcoholics ii. in every social class iii. third largest health problem iv. most common psychiatric problem in men v. rising steadily since WWII vi. problem begins in adolescence
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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psychological disorders - Psychological Disorders...

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