Ch05 Sensation and Perception

Ch05 Sensation and Perception - Psychological Science...

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Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Five: Sensation and Perception
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Overview of Chapter Questions: How Do We Sense Our Worlds? What Are the Basic Sensory Processes? What Are the Basic Perceptual Processes? How Does Attention Help the Brain Manage Perceptions?
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Sensation Defined Sensation refers to how sense organs respond to and detect external stimulus energy, and how those responses are transmitted to the brain
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Perception Defined Perception refers to the brain’s further processing of detected signals and results in an internal representation
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How Do We Sense Our Worlds? Stimuli Must Be Coded to Be Understood by the Brain Psychophysics Relates Stimulus to Response
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Stimuli Must Be Coded to Be Understood by the Brain Sensory coding involves translation of a stimulus’s properties into neural impulses Sensory receptors pass impulses to connecting neurons through a transduction ” process Consider the stimuli, receptors, and pathways described in Table 5.1
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Stimuli Must Be Coded to Be Understood by the Brain Sensations are transduced messages carried by nerve impulses to the brain Coding can be quantitative (see figure 5.2) or qualitative Most qualitative sensory coding involves “coarse coding”
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Psychophysics Relates Stimulus to Response Sensory thresholds refer to how much energy must be present for a signal to be detected by a sense organ See Table 5.2 for some examples of absolute thresholds by organ systems
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Table 5.2
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Psychophysics Relates Stimulus to Response Difference Thresholds Weber’s Law Signal Detection Theory (see fig. 5.3) Sensory adaptation
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What Are the Basic Sensory Processes? In Gustation, Taste Buds Are Chemical Detectors In Smell, the Nasal Cavity Gathers Particles of Odor In Touch, Sensors in the Skin Detect Pressure, Temperature, and Pain In Hearing, the Ear Is a Sound-Wave Detector In Vision, the Eye Detects Light Waves
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In Gustation, Taste Buds Are Chemical Detectors People differ greatly in how many taste buds they have (500-10,000) Each bud has about 50 receptor cells Microvilli send signals to the medulla, which project to the thalamus and cortex, ultimately producing “taste” from coarse coding of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter sensations
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In Smell, the Nasal Cavity Gathers Particles of Odor Transduction occurs in the olfactory epithelium and coded messages project to the olfactory bulb (fig 5.4)
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