Ch09 Motivation - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga...

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Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Nine: Motivation
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Overview of Chapter Questions: How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? Why Are Human Beings Social? How Do People Achieve Personal Goals? What Determines How We Eat? What Is Addiction? What Factors Motivate Sexual Behavior?
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How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? • Needs, Drives, and Arousal Motivate Behavior • Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviors • Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake
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Needs, Drives, and Arousal Motivate Behavior “Motivation” involves factors that energize, initiate, direct, and sustain behavior “Needs” are states of deficiency Maslow’s influential concept of a “hierarchy of needs” helped shape “humanistic psychology” (fig 9.2)
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Needs, Drives, and Arousal Motivate Behavior “Drives” are psychological states activated to satisfy needs Needs produce states of arousal which drive behavior (fig 9.3) Negative feedback helps maintain homeostasis (fig 9.4)
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Needs, Drives, and Arousal Motivate Behavior Hull proposed that specific aroused drive states increase in proportion to amount of deprivation Behaviors that consistently reduce drives and arousal become “habit” “Incentives” are external motivators and are culturally determined Optimal arousal: Yerkes-Dodson law (fig
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Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviors Motivational states arouse behaviors that solve adaptive problems and produce pleasure Freud’s “pleasure principle” epitomizes hedonism Pleasure is associated with dopamine release, and many pleasurable behaviors exceed adaptive needs
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Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic motivation Curiosity, play, and exploratory drive Creativity and problem-solving Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation Control theory and self-perception
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Why Are Human Beings Social? • Humans Have a Fundamental Need to Belong • People Seek Others When They Are Anxious • People Are Motivated to Detect and Reject Cheaters
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Need to Belong The need to belong is a basic motive that drives behavior and influences cognition and emotion
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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Ch09 Motivation - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga...

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