Ch06 Learning and Reward

Ch06 Learning and Reward - Psychological Science Michael...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Six: Learning and Reward Overview of Chapter Questions: How Did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop? How Is Operant Conditioning Different from Classical Conditioning? How Does Watching Others Affect Learning? What is the Biological Basis of Reward? How Does Learning Occur at the Neuronal Level? How Did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop? Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Phobias and Addictions Have Learned Components Classical Conditioning Involves More Than Contiguity How Did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop? John Watsons Behaviorism rejected the Freudian and Structuralist focus on mental events and verbal reports Behaviorism promoted objective observation of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity Human infants as Tabula Rasa Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Pavlovs Experiments (see figs 6.3, 6.4) establish principles of Classical Conditioning: UR: US: CS CR: Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Acquisition (see fig 6.5) Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Behavioral Responses Are Conditioned Stimulus Generalization (see fig 6.6) Stimulus Discrimination Second-Order Conditioning Phobias and Addictions Have Learned Components Phobias and their treatment Counter conditioning Systematic Desensitization CS/CR1 (fear) CS/CR2 (relaxation) Drug addiction: Coffee and Heroin Classical Conditioning Involves More Than Contiguity Evolutionary significance of conditioned food aversions Equipotentiality is limited Biological preparedness Classical Conditioning Involves More Than Contiguity The Cognitive Perspective focuses on prediction and expectancy Rescorla-Wagner model states the strength of the CS-US association is based on the degree to which the US is unexpected or surprising The Blocking Effect How Is Operant Conditioning Different from Classical Conditioning? Reinforcement Increases Behavior Both Reinforcement and Punishment Can Be Positive or Negative Operant Conditioning Is Influenced by Schedules of Reinforcement Biology and Cognition Influence Operant Conditioning The Value of Reinforcement Follows Economic Principles How Is Operant Conditioning...
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Ch06 Learning and Reward - Psychological Science Michael...

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