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Ch11 Human Development - Psychological Science Michael...

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Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Eleven: Human Development
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Overview of Chapter Questions: What Shapes a Child? How Do Children Learn about Their Worlds? How Do Children and Adolescents Develop Their Identities? What Brings Meaning to Adulthood?
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What Shapes a Child? Development Starts in the Womb • Brain Development Promotes Learning • Attachment Promotes Survival • Parental Style Can Affect Children’s Well-Being
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Development Starts in the Womb Developing humans are “embryos” in the first two months after conception Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain being to form by week 4 Cells forming the cortex are visible by week 7 After two months the growing human is called a “fetus”
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Development Starts in the Womb By the 7 th month the fetus has a working nervous system At birth the brain has cortical layers, neuronal connectivity, and myelination Hormonal influences in the womb are substantial
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Development Starts in the Womb Teratogens cause abnormal development Thalidomide is one example Alcohol is a teratogen causing fetal alcohol syndrome
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Brain Development Promotes Learning Newborns prefer sweet tastes Newborns prefer the smell of their mothers’ milk Newborns are startled by and orient toward loud sounds Visual acuity in newborns is 8-12 inches
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Brain Development Promotes Learning Reflexes aid survival and may pave the way for more complex learning Myelination occurs in different brain regions at different stages of development Hearing and balance are myelinated at birth See Fig 11.3 for myelination in visual cortex Brain areas involved in abstract thinking are not fully myelinated until after age 20
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Brain Development Promotes Learning Synaptic pruning occurs Specific cognitive skills may depend on brain development and myelination But myelination and brain development depend on nutrition and other environmental factors Critical periods in brain development occur
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