Ch12 Personality - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga...

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Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Twelve: Personality
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Overview of Chapter Questions: How Have Scientists Studied Personality? How Is Personality Assessed, and What Does It Predict? What Is the Biological Basis of Personality? Can Personality Change?
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How Have Scientists Studied Personality? Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Integrated Personal Experience Type and Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions Personality Reflects Learning and Cognitive Processes
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Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes Sigmund Freud’s “Psychoanalysis” promoted the role of unconscious “instincts” in driving behavior, thought, and emotion Eros (life instinct) follows the “pleasure principle” The energy of Eros is “libido”
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Freud’s Topographical Model
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Freud’s Five Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral Stage: Anal Stage : Phallic Stage: The Oedipal Complex rages here And is solved through repression and same-sex identification Latency Stage:
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Freud’s Structural Model Id Ego The “reality principle”: The dynamic role of “defense mechanisms”: Superego
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Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theory Neo-Freudians embrace the idea of unconscious conflict but reject Freud’s postulated underlying mechanisms Jung Adler Horney Object-Relations theorists focused on emotional attachments
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Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Integrated Personal Experience Humanistic Psychology rejects the determinism of Freud and Skinner, and promote “phenomenology” Self-actualization is encouraged Main Theorists: Abraham Maslow: Self-Actualization Carl Rogers: Unconditional Positive Regard promotes fully functioning persons
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Self-Actualization is the highest “need” in Maslow’s Humanistic Model of Human Motivation
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Type and Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions “Personality Types” are discrete categories into which we place people
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Ch12 Personality - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga...

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