Ch08 Thinking and Intelligence

Ch08 Thinking and Intelligence - Psychological Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Eight: Thinking and Intelligence Overview of Chapter Questions: How Does the Mind Represent Information? How Do We Make Decisions and Solve Problems? How Do We Understand Intelligence? How Does the Mind Represent Information? • Mental Images Are Analogical Representations • Concepts Are Symbolic Representations • Schemas Organize Useful Information about the Environment Mental Images Are Analogical Representations Think about a lemon: Evidence from mental rotation studies point to mental images as the form in which objects are represented (figs 8.1, 8.2) Thoughts, too can take the form of images Mental Images Are Analogical Representations Analogical representations don’t capture all our perceptual knowledge, however Consider how a mental map involves both analogical and symbolic representations (fig 8.3) Concepts Are Symbolic Representations General knowledge involves symbolic representations of information In categorization, we group known things based on shared properties (fig 8.4) Concepts allow us to organize mental representations around themes Concepts Are Symbolic Representations In the “ defining attribute model ” each concept is characterized by a list of features necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category ( fig 8.5) Prototype models address shortcomings of the defining attribute model (fig 8.6) Exemplar models assume there is no Schemas Organize Useful Information about the Environment Schemas about sequences of events are called “ scripts” (fig 8.7) Scripts help guide behavior by noting how common situations have consistent attributes (library’s are quiet and have books) and people have roles within situational contexts How Do We Make Decisions and Solve Problems? • People Use Deductive and Inductive Reasoning • Decision Making Often Involves Heuristics • Problem Solving Achieves Goals People Use Deductive and Inductive Reasoning In deductive reasoning we go from the general to the specific, using logic to...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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Ch08 Thinking and Intelligence - Psychological Science...

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