Ch07 Memory - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter Seven: Memory Overview of Chapter Questions: What Are the Basic Stages of Memory? What Are the Different Memory Systems? How Is Information Organized in Long-Term Memory? What Brain Processes Are Involved in Memory? When Do People Forget? How Are Memories Distorted? The Illustrative Case of H.M. H.M. had his hippocampus removed in a surgery designed to stop epileptic seizures (fig 7.1) Profound disturbances in memory were produced which illuminate many memory processes He could learn some things but didn’t know he’d learned (fig 7.2) What Are the Basic Stages of Memory? • Sensory Memory Is Brief • Short-Term Memory Is Active • Long-Term Memory Is Relatively Permanent What Are the Basic Stages of Memory? • The modal memory model represents a three-stage system based in an information processing view of memory ( fig 7.3) Sensory Memory Is Brief Iconic memory was demonstrated in Sperling’s classic experiment, and lasts about 1/3 second Echoic memory Iconic and echoic memory systems may allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream Short-Term Memory Is Active Sensory information attended to moves to short-term memory (STM) which holds “immediate memory” STM capacity is limited (7 +/- 2 units) but “chunking” increases memory span by organizing bits into meaningful units Short-Term Memory Is Active STM is not a single storage system but an active processing unit operating on multiple types of sensory information “Working memory” is an active processing system that keeps information available for cognitive processes (see fig 7.4) Long-Term Memory Is Relatively Permanent The serial position effect involves both the primacy and recency effects and illustrates controversies about STM and LTM (fig 7.5) What gets into Long-Term Memory Overlearning and distributed practice help LTM Familiarity is insufficient (fig 7.6) What Are the Different Memory Systems? • Explicit Memory Involves Conscious Effort • Implicit Memory Occurs without Deliberate Effort Explicit Memory Involves Conscious Effort Explicit memory involves the processes used to remember specific information which can be declared Episodic memory is personal Semantic memory involves knowledge of facts Implicit Memory Occurs without Deliberate Effort Implicit memory is the pervasive process by which people show without awareness that they are remembering something Implicit memory does not require attention and is automatic Consider “procedural memory” Repetition priming How Is Information Organized...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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Ch07 Memory - Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and...

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