Final Review By Me - Concepts: Particulars vs. Universals...

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Concepts: Particulars vs. Universals Particulars Can’t have multiple instances Ex. A specific date [9/11] , this grain of sand, JCL, Austin, events Universals Can have multiple instances Properties [color, size shape] Relations [between, on, love, friendship] Kinds [tiger, building, pencil, shortstop] Books [the Bible; Worldly Wisdom] Musical Works [Luckenbach, Fugue in D Minor] Are Universals Real? Mind-dependent Mind-independent Real Conceptualism Realism Unreal Nominalism Platonism, Conceptualism, Nominalism Platonism Universals are real, mind-independent Judgment of perception [this is a triangle] We perceive the thing as a triangle because we apprehend the form Problem: How do we know anything about the forms? Answer: Recollection, The form of the Good Conceptualism Universals are real, mind-dependent Nominalism Universals are not real, everything is mind-dependent Epistemological, metaphysical, semantic [strategy for explaining knowledge of abstraction] Semantic: the sentences don’t really commit us to the troublesome objects Nominalism no universals Abstract terms stand for nothing [we have something in common ? ] Fictionalism: abstract language is fictional Metaphysics: The objects are mind-dependent Conceptualism Universals are mind-dependent There are universals, but we construct them Plato’s forms concepts in the mind Epistemology: We have a faculty of knowing the objects We have the ability to know universals Platonism: We know certain universals a priori We know universals by abstracting them from particulars [Aristotle]
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Idealism and Realism Idealism we have reason to believe that a thing exists only if it’s mind- dependent Realism some things are mind-independent; explains our experiences Argument for Idealism, Berkeley Disagree with descarte and locke Attack on primary qualities and on substance Perceptions vary while objects remain unchanged “To be is to be perceived” Truth Semantic Correspondence A sentence is true iff it corresponds with reality [corresponds to some fact] Coherence a sentence is true if it coheres with a comprehensive theory of the world
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Final Review By Me - Concepts: Particulars vs. Universals...

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