management midterm study guide.docx

management midterm study guide.docx - What is OB What is HR...

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What is OB? What is HR? How do they differ? Organizational behavior (OB) is a field study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. Scholars in management departments of universities and scientists in business organizations conduct research on OB. The findings from those research studies are then applied by managers or consultants to see whether they help meet “real-world” challenges. OB can be contrasted with two other courses commonly offered in management departments: human resource management and strategic management HR , Human Resource management, takes the theories and principles studies in OB and explores the “nuts-and-bolts” applications of those principles in organizations Differences : An OB study might explore the relationship between learning and job performance, whereas a human resource management study might examine the best ways to structure training programs to promote employee learning Motivation – Extrinsic Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance (bonuses, promotions, praise) Intrinsic Self-generated, originating in the mere act of performing the task (enjoyment, interestingness, personal expression) Task performance determines motivation and sometimes can serve as its own reward (intrinsic); can be maximized with specific and difficult goals; affected by intensity of effort, persistence of effort, and task strategies Expectancy Theory (what makes you decided to direct your effort to work assignments rather than taking a break or wasting time?) PPT: Motivation is fostered when the employee believes three things: That effort will result in performance, that performance will result in outcomes, that those outcomes will be valuable . describes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. Expectancy theory argues that employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and away from pain or, more generally, toward certain outcomes and away from others. Expectancy Theory model Expectancy represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task. What shapes expectancy for a particular task? Self-efficacy Defined as the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success. Four factors: Past accomplishments - the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past. Vicarious experiences - taking in account their observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks. Verbal persuasion - friends, co workers, leaders can persuade employees that they can “get the job done” Emotional cues - feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplishment, whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels. Instrumentality: Represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome. Valence: Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes
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